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The documentary hypothesis contends that by Sylvia …

It is contended that obsessional phenomena are archaic, involuntary, repetitive thought processes that stimulate strong aversive emotional states (e.g. fear, disgust) and lead to risk avoidance behaviour. It is hypothesised that the neurobiological system that generates these phenomena has the function of generating risk scenarios without conscious intervention and may thus function as an ‘Involuntary Risk Scenario Generating System’ (IRSGS). Compulsive rituals, the other component of OCD, are conceptualised as primitive harm avoidance behavioural routines that are under semi-voluntary control (Bradshaw, 1997). It is suggested that the IRSGS operates primarily as a self-generated conditioning system whereby the individual can develop harm avoidance behavioural strategies without experiencing the risks involved in real-life dangers.

The random walk hypothesis contends that stock prices occur ..

Concurrent strength and endurance training appears to inhibit strength development when compared with strength training alone. Our understanding of the nature of this inhibition and the mechanisms responsible for it is limited at present. This is due to the difficulties associated with comparing results of studies which differ markedly in a number of design factors, including the mode, frequency, duration and intensity of training, training history of participants, scheduling of training sessions and dependent variable selection. Despite these difficulties, both chronic and acute hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phenomenon of strength inhibition during concurrent training. The chronic hypothesis contends that skeletal muscle cannot adapt metabolically or morphologically to both strength and endurance training simultaneously. This is because many adaptations at the muscle level observed in response to strength training are different from those observed after endurance training. The observation that changes in muscle fibre type and size after concurrent training are different from those observed after strength training provide some support for the chronic hypothesis. The acute hypothesis contends that residual fatigue from the endurance component of concurrent training compromises the ability to develop tension during the strength element of concurrent training. It is proposed that repeated acute reductions in the quality of strength training sessions then lead to a reduction in strength development over time. Peripheral fatigue factors such as muscle damage and glycogen depletion have been implicated as possible fatigue mechanisms associated with the acute hypothesis. Further systematic research is necessary to quantify the inhibitory effects of concurrent training on strength development and to identify different training approaches that may overcome any negative effects of concurrent training.

The documentary hypothesis contends that a moses - …

The racial threat hypothesis originated in , which argued as the relative size of racial and ethnic minority group increases, members of the majority group perceive a growing threat. contends that this perceived threat can take on two different forms. The first is economic threat. That is, as increased numbers of blacks compete for jobs, housing, and other economic resources, whites increasingly feel their economic well-being and dominance are threatened. The second is political threat which occurs as blacks enhance their political power, causing whites to feel their political hegemony is threatened. Researchers have since extended Blalock’s original propositions to include criminal threat—that is, a larger black population fosters fear of crime. In response to any form of minority threat, it is hypothesized that whites will demand intensified social control to maintain dominant standing. In addition, Blalock maintained that the relationship between racial threat and social control would be nonlinear, and the nature of the nonlinear relationship is different in contexts of political versus economic threat. In particular, under conditions of economic threat, efforts geared toward maintaining economic dominance will increase with a rate. Under conditions of political threat, however, controls aimed at maintaining political power will increase with an rate. Finally, Blalock contended that racial segregation may operate as an effective way to reduce racial threat and a particular form of control imposed on minorities. The logic of Blalock’s racial threat arguments has been extended by other scholars. For example, suggests in contexts where the black population outnumbers or reaches equivalence with the white population, use of social control against blacks should be more difficult because blacks are able to mobilize resources and political power. provides an important theoretical integration of key studies testing the racial threat hypothesis.

Bickerton (1996) has proposed that there are two fundamental modes of thinking: on and off-line. On-line thinking is common to many complex organisms and involves mental activity designed to solve a problem directly faced by an individual. Off-line thinking involves mental activity aimed at solving problems that the organism may face at some time in the future. Bickerton contends that off-line thinking is language-based and, therefore, unique to the human species. Within this framework, obsessional thinking could be considered as a primitive variant of off-line thinking, albeit of a non-voluntary type. Although the idea that human thought is language based is not universally accepted ( Pinker, 1994), there may be grounds to suggest that obsessional phenomena could have been the evolutionary precursor to voluntary conscious thinking. This would raise the interesting question as to whether obsessions, as conceptualised in this paper, exist in other species. The main obstacle in studying such a system in non-humans is, of course, the inaccessibility of their subjective states and, at least at present, the question can only be investigated indirectly through determining if something akin to obsessions could be implicated in learning in other species.

The information content of dividend hypothesis: A permanent income ..

A new hypothesis is presented within the framework of evolutionary psychology that attempts to explain the origins of obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is suggested that obsessions and compulsions originate from the overactivity of a mental module that the majority of humans possess and has the function of generating risk scenarios without voluntary intervention. It is hypothesised that obsessional phenomena function as an risk avoidance process, designed to lead to risk avoidance behaviour at a future time, thus distinguishing it from anxiety and related phenomena as emotional states, designed to lead to the avoidance of immediate and direct risks. Finally, the hypothesis makes a number of specific predictions that are testable and refutable. It is contended that the present hypothesis if supported by empirical evidence could serve as a basis for future research on this important disorder.

Paleoanthropologist Donald C. Johanson, is professor of anthropology and Director of the Institute of Human Origins at Arizona State University. He is best known for his discovery of “Lucy”, a 3.2 million-year old Australopithecus afarensis skeleton he found in 1974 in Ethiopia. His books include Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind and, most recently, From Lucy to Language. Dr. Johanson hosted the Emmy-nominated NOVA television series In Search of Human Origins.

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Savannah hypothesis, when what Cerling contends is the ..

In an attempt to remedy the deficiencies of the fission model, the precipitation hypothesis was offered. This contends the following steps happened:

Sociology - Ch. 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

A new hypothesis is presented within the framework of evolutionary psychology that attempts to explain the origins of obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is suggested that obsessions and compulsions originate from the overactivity of a mental module that the majority of humans possess and has the function of generating risk scenarios without voluntary intervention. It is hypothesised that obsessional phenomena function as an risk avoidance process, designed to lead to risk avoidance behaviour at a future time, thus distinguishing it from anxiety and related phenomena as emotional states, designed to lead to the avoidance of immediate and direct risks. Finally, the hypothesis makes a number of specific predictions that are testable and refutable. It is contended that the present hypothesis if supported by empirical evidence could serve as a basis for future research on this important disorder. Darwinism, evolutionary psychology, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder.

Culture and Reflection Hypothesis - Sociology Guide

Sociologists study culture and the media in a variety of ways, asking a variety of questions about the relationship of culture to other social institutions and the role of culture in modern life. One important question for sociologists studying the mass media is whether these images have any effect on those who see them. The reflection hypothesis contends that the mass media reflect the values of the general population.

Read about Culture and Reflection Hypothesis

Rainforests exist because it rains a lot and that makes the forests grow, right? Well, not so fast. What if it’s not the rain that makes the forests—what if it’s the forests that actually generate the rain? That’s the contention of a paper in BioScience Magazine called How Forests Attract Rain.

The article discusses a mostly overlooked hypothesis that, if right, would explain how big rainforests—like the Amazon—actually drive the entire global water cycle.

Here’s the idea. Forests pull in large amounts of water vapor from surrounding regions and from nearby bodies of water. As the vapor condenses into rain, the local atmospheric pressure drops. Which sucks in more water vapor from outside the forest. Which repeats the process. Creating a positive feedback loop. The whole rainforest-water vapor system is called a biotic pump, because the living forest matter is what’s moving the water.

If proven, the biotic-pump hypothesis could explain how big rainforests far from oceans stay so moist. The info would help climate models. And highlight the potential dangers of deforesting large parts of the pump.

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