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How many ATP are produced during Glycolysis?

Photosynthesis converts these energy- depleted compounds (ADPand NADP+) back to the high energy forms (ATP and NADPH) and theenergy thus produced in this chemical form is utilized to drivethe chemical reactions necessary for synthesis of sugars andother carbon containing compounds (e.g., proteins, fats). Theproduction of high energy ATP and NADPH in plants occurs in whatis known as Light Phase Reactions (Z Scheme) (requiressunlight). The energy releasing reactions which converts themback to energy-depleted ADP and NADP is known as Dark PhaseReactions (Calvin Cycle) (does not require light) in whichthe synthesis of glucose and other carbohydrates occurs.

How many ATP are produced during the Krebs Cycle?

Therefor these two (Light and Dark) phases are interlinked andcomplimentary. And in the end, the plants have utilized theenergy of sunlight to produce glucose (and ultimately othercarbohydrates, proteins and fats) and oxygen from water andcarbon dioxide.

How many ATP are produced during Aerobic respiration?

How many ATP are produced in the electron transport chain located in the Mitochondria?

Cells respond to changing metabolic needs by controlling reaction rates. The most common mechanism of control is feedback inhibition. Catabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle, are controlled by regulating enzyme activity at strategic points. The ratio of ATP to ADP and AMP reflects the energy status of the cell, and phosphofructokinase is sensitive to changes in this ratio. Citrate (produced in Krebs cycle) and ATP are allosteric inhibitors of phosphofructokinase, so when their concentrations rise, the enzyme slows glycolysis. As the rate of glycolysis slows, Krebs cycle also slows since the supply of acetyl CoA is reduced. This synchronizes the rates of glycolysis and Krebs cycle. ADP and AMP are allosteric activators for phosphofructokinase, so when their concentrations relative to ATP rise, the enzyme speeds up glycolysis which speeds up the Krebs cycle. In summary, Glycolysis produces a net of 2 ATP per glucose molecule. Without oxygen, glycolysis is part of fermentation that regenerates NAD+, the oxidizing agent for glycolysis. In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted into acetaldehyde, and CO2 is released. Acetaldehyde is then reduced by NADH to form ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and NAD+ is regenerated. In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced to form lactate and recycle NAD+; no CO2 is released. Muscle cells make ATP by lactic acid fermentation when energy demand is high and oxygen supply is low.

Cells respond to changing metabolic needs by controlling reaction rates. The most common mechanism of control is feedback inhibition. Catabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle, are controlled by regulating enzyme activity at strategic points. The ratio of ATP to ADP and AMP reflects the energy status of the cell, and phosphofructokinase is sensitive to changes in this ratio. Citrate (produced in Krebs cycle) and ATP are allosteric inhibitors of phosphofructokinase, so when their concentrations rise, the enzyme slows glycolysis. As the rate of glycolysis slows, Krebs cycle also slows since the supply of acetyl CoA is reduced. This synchronizes the rates of glycolysis and Krebs cycle. ADP and AMP are allosteric activators for phosphofructokinase, so when their concentrations relative to ATP rise, the enzyme speeds up glycolysis which speeds up the Krebs cycle. In summary, Glycolysis produces a net of 2 ATP per glucose molecule. Without oxygen, glycolysis is part of fermentation that regenerates NAD+, the oxidizing agent for glycolysis. In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted into acetaldehyde, and CO2 is released. Acetaldehyde is then reduced by NADH to form ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and NAD+ is regenerated. In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced to form lactate and recycle NAD+; no CO2 is released. Muscle cells make ATP by lactic acid fermentation when energy demand is high and oxygen supply is low. Comparison of Fermentation and Respiration. Both fermentation and respiration use glycolysis with as the oxidizing agent to convert glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate. To oxidize fermentation uses pyruvate or acetaldehyde as the final electron acceptor, whereas respiration uses oxygen via the ETC. Also, with oxygen available, pyruvate can be oxidized in the Krebs cycle to produce much more ATP. Facultative anaerobes, such as yeast and some bacteria, can make ATP by fermentation or respiration, depending upon whether oxygen is available. Glycolysis is common to fermentation and respiration. This most widespread of all metabolic processes, occurs in the cytosol of prokaryotes and eukaryotes) probably evolved in ancient prokaryotes before oxygen was available.

How many ATP are produced during Anaerobic respiration?

Now we need to understand how cells can use the products ofphotosynthesis to obtain energy.

The Versatility of Catabolism. Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates can all be used by cellular respiration to make ATP. Proteins are digested into amino acids, which are then deaminated and can enter into respiration at several sites. The digestion of fats yields glycerol, which is converted to an intermediate of glycolysis, and fatty acids, which are broken down by beta oxidation to two-carbon fragments that enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA.

No means of producing ATP existsthat is intermediate between these four basic methods and no transitionalforms have ever been found that bridge the gap between these fourdifferent forms of ATP production.

How many ATP molecules does the Krebs cycle produce in one cycle?
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Number of ATP produces in photosynthesis?

The oxidative chemical reactions of respiration releaseenergy, some of which is heat and some of it is captured in theform of high energy compunds such as Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)and Nicotinamide adenide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Thesecompounds have a high energy (unstable) terminal phosphate bondand that terminal phosphate is easily detached with the transferof the energy to drive chemical reactions in the synthesis ofother biomolecules. In this case, the ATP loses one phosphate tobecome the energy-depleted ADP (Adenosine diphosphate)and the NADPH loses one electron to become energy-depleted NADP+.

Number of ATP produces in photosynthesis

The catabolic pathways of glycolysis and respiration capture the chemical energy in glucose and other fuels and store it in ATP. Glycolysis, occurring in the cytosol, produces ATP, pyruvate, and NADH; the later two, may then enter the mitochondria for respiration. A mitochondrion consists of a matrix in which the enzymes of the krebs cycle are localized, a highly folded inner membrane (cristae) in which enzymes and the molecules of the electron transport chain (ETC) are embedded, and an intermembrane space between the two membranes, to temporarily house H+ that has been pumped across the inner membrane during the redox reactions of the ETC (a proton motive force (the definition is given below in the text) drives oxidative phosphorylation as protons move back through ATP synthases located in the membrane).

How many ATP molecules are produced or consumed …

So we can summarize by saying that the photosynthetic plantstrap solar energy to form ATP and NADPH (Light Phase) and thenuse these as the energy source to make carbohydrates and otherbiomolecules from carbon dioxide and water (Dark Phase),simultaneously releasing oxygen in to the atmosphere. Thechemoheterotrophic animals reverse this process by using theoxygen to degrade the energy-rich organic products ofphotosynthesis to CO2 and water in order to generate ATP fortheir own synthesis of biomolecules.

How many ATP are produced during Aerobic respiration?

Plant photosynthesis, both the Light Phase and Dark phasereactions, takes place in chloroplasts, which may be regarded asthe "power plants" of the green leaf cells. At night,when there is no sunlight energy, ATP continues to be generatedfor the plant's needs by respiration, i.e., oxidation of(photosynthetically produced) carbohydrate in mitochondria(similar to animals).

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