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Hockney–Falco thesis - WikiVisually
Art historians and others have criticized Hockney's argument onthe grounds that the use of optical aids, though well-establishedin individual cases, has little value for explaining the overalldevelopment of Western art, and that historical records andpaintings and photographs of art studios (sans optical devices), aswell as present-day realist artists, demonstrate that high levelsof realism are possible without optical aids. TheHockney–Falco theory, however, never seeks to explain the "overalldevelopment of Western art," but merely some of thetechniques used in some parts of a painting or insome parts of the painters process, and admits that thesetechniques alone do not account for the final quality of apainting.
At a scientific conference in February 2007, Falco furtherargued that the Arabic physicist 's(965–1040) work on , inhis , may have influenced the use of optical aids byRenaissance artists. Falco said that his and Hockney's examples ofRenaissance art "demonstrate a continuum in the use of optics byartists from c. 1430, arguably initiated as a result of Ibnal-Haytham's influence, until today."
Hockney-Falco thesis - The Full Wiki
Part of Hockney's work involved collaboration with CharlesFalco, a andan expert in . While theuse of optical aids would generally enhance accuracy, Falcocalculated the types of that would result from specificoptical devices; Hockney and Falco argued that such errors could infact be found in the work of some of the Old Masters.
Hockney's book prompted intense and sustained debate amongartists, art historians, and a wide variety of other scholars. Inparticular, it has spurred increased interest in the actual methodsand techniques of artists, among scientists and , as well as general historians and . Art historians have in general reacted unfavorably,interpreting the Hockney–Falco thesis as an accusation that the OldMasters "cheated" and intentionally obscured their methods.Physicist David G. Stork and several co-authors have argued againstthe Hockney–Falco thesis from a technical standpoint.
The Hockney-Falco thesis | Giles Stokoe
The Hockney–Falco thesis is a controversialtheory of , advanced by artist and physicist , suggesting that advances in and accuracy in thehistory of Western art since the were primarily the result ofoptical aids such as the , , and ,rather than solely due the development of technique and skill. In a 2001 book,Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the Lost Techniques of the OldMasters, Hockney analyzed the work of the and argued that the level of accuracy represented intheir work is impossible to create by "eyeballing it". Since then,Hockney and Falco have produced a number of publications onpositive evidence of the use optical aids, and the historicalplausibility of such methods.
As described in Secret Knowledge, in January 1999during a visit to the Hockney conceived of the idea that optical aidswere the key factor in the development of artistic realism. He wasstruck by the accuracy of portraits by , and became convinced that Ingres had used a orsimilar device. From there, Hockney began looking for signs of theuse of optical aids in earlier paintings, creating what he calledthe Great Wall in his studio by organizing images of greatrealistic art by time period. What he saw as a sudden rise ofrealism around , combined withCharles Falco's suggestion that concave mirrors could have beenused in that period to project images, was the germ of theHockney–Falco thesis.
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Studio Practice & The Hockney/Falco Thesis | Nicholas …
In 2000, Falco and Hockney published an analysis ("OpticalInsights into Renaissance Art") of the likely use of concavemirrors in Jan Van Eyck's work in Optics & PhotonicsNews, vol. 11. In 2001, Hockney published an extended form ofhis argument in Secret Knowledge.
The Hockney-Falco thesis: Constraints and opportunities
In Secret Knowledge, Hockney argues that early such as and used concave mirrors; asevidence, he points to the chandelier in Van Eyck's , the ear in Van Eyck's portrait of , and the carpet inLotto's Husband and Wife. Hockney suggests that laterartists, beginning with , used aswell, to achieve a large field of view.
Essay on David Hockney's book "Secret Knowledge" | …
Secret Knowledge recounts Hockney's search for evidenceof optical aids in the work of earlier artists, including theassembly of a "Great Wall" of the . The 15th century work of Jan van Eyck seems to beturning point, he argues, after which elements of realism becameincreasingly prominent. He correlates shifts toward increasedrealism with advances in optical technologies. The argument ofSecret Knowledge is primarily a visual one, as Hockney waslargely unable to determine when and how optical aids were used bytextual or direct evidence.
return to the hockney falco thesis by miles mathis
In addition to incredulity on the part of art historians andcritics of modern art, some of the harshest criticism of theHockney–Falco thesis came from another expert in optics, imageprocessing and pattern recognition, David G. Stork. Stork analyzedthe images used by Falco and Hockney, and came to the conclusionthat they do not demonstrate the kinds of opticaldistortion that curved mirrors or converging lenses wouldcause. Falcohas claimed that Stork's published criticisms have relied onfabricated data and misrepresentations of Hockney and Falco'stheory. Storkhas rebutted this claim.
Main article: Hockney–Falco thesis
Critics of the Hockney–Falco theory claim that the quality ofmirrors and optical glass for the period before 1550 and a lack oftextual evidence (excluding paintings themselves as "documentaryevidence") of their use for image projection during this periodcasts doubt on the theory. However, the historians were moresanguine about the possible relevance of the thesis between 1550and the invention of the telescope, and cautiously supportive afterthat period, when there clearly was interest and capacity toproject realistic images; 17th century painters such as and used opticaldevices in variety of ways, though not the ways postulated byHockney.
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