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2. Decide on the null hypothesis.
I have set up a . It is largely selfexplanatory. It will calculate the degrees of freedom for you if you're using an extrinsic null hypothesis; if you are using an intrinsic hypothesis, you must enter the degrees of freedom into the spreadsheet.
We compare the X^{2 }value with a . with one degree of freedom. Our calculated X^{2 }exceeds the tabulated ^{2} value (10.83) for = 0.001. We conclude that there is a highly significant departure from the null hypothesis  we have very strong evidence that large spores and small spores show different germination behaviour.
3. Calculate the expected frequencies, based on the null hypothesis.
But in some types of experiment we wish to record how many individuals fall into a particular category, such as blue eyes or brown eyes, motile or nonmotile cells, etc. These counts, or enumeration data, are discontinuous (1, 2, 3 etc.) and must be treated differently from continuous data. Often the appropriate test is chisquared (^{2}), which we use to test whether the number of individuals in different categories fit a null hypothesis (an expectation of some sort).
Remember (memorize) the five major assumptionsthat lead to a HardyWeinberg equilibrium (click links to see discussion of each force):{Three additional assumptions are that the organisms are diploid, reproducesexually and have nonoverlapping generations}.
Statistical inference concerning HardyWeinberg equilibrium.
The shape of the chisquare distribution depends on the number of degrees of freedom. For an extrinsic null hypothesis (the much more common situation, where you know the proportions predicted by the null hypothesis before collecting the data), the number of degrees of freedom is simply the number of values of the variable, minus one. Thus if you are testing a null hypothesis of a 1:1 sex ratio, there are two possible values (male and female), and therefore one degree of freedom. This is because once you know how many of the total are females (a number which is "free" to vary from 0 to the sample size), the number of males is determined. If there are three values of the variable (such as red, pink, and white), there are two degrees of freedom, and so on.
An intrinsic null hypothesis is one where you estimate one or more parameters from the data in order to get the numbers for your null hypothesis. As described above, one example is HardyWeinberg proportions. For an intrinsic null hypothesis, the number of degrees of freedom is calculated by taking the number of values of the variable, subtracting 1 for each parameter estimated from the data, then subtracting 1 more. Thus for HardyWeinberg proportions with two alleles and three genotypes, there are three values of the variable (the three genotypes); you subtract one for the parameter estimated from the data (the allele frequency, p); and then you subtract one more, yielding one degree of freedom. There are other statistical issues involved in testing fit to HardyWeinberg expectations, so if you need to do this, see Engels (2009) and the older references he cites.
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Null hypothesis for the distribution of variation at one locus
I have set up a . It is largely selfexplanatory. It will calculate the degrees of freedom for you if you're using an extrinsic null hypothesis; if you are using an intrinsic hypothesis, you must enter the degrees of freedom into the spreadsheet.
How is the HardyWeinberg principle used a null hypothesis
There are web pages that will perform the chisquare test and . None of these web pages lets you set the degrees of freedom to the appropriate value for testing an intrinsic null hypothesis.
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium/Null Hypothesis  YouTube
You might think that there are 3 degrees of freedom (because there are 4 categories). But there is actually one degree of freedom! The reason is that we lose one degree of freedom because we have 4 categories, and we lose a further 2 degrees of freedom because we used two pieces of information to construct our null hypothesis  we used a column total and a row total. Once we had used these we would have needed only one data entry in order to fill in the rest of the values (therefore we have one degree of freedom).
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium/Null Hypothesis
In this case there is no "theory" that gives us an obvious null hypothesis. For example, we have no reason to suppose that 55% or 75% or any other percentage of large spores will produce multiple outgrowths. So the most sensible null hypothesis is that both the large and the small spores will behave similarly and that both types of spore will produce 50% multiple outgrowths and 50% single outgrowths. In other words, we will test against a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Then, if our data do not agree with this expectation we will have evidence that spore size affects the type of germination.
Are the alleles in HardyWeinberg equilibrium?  Yahoo …
To do a using the program, choose "Goodnessoffit tests: Contingency tables" from the Statistical Test menu, then choose "Chisquared tests" from the Test Family menu. (The results will be almost identical to a true power analysis for a G–test.) To calculate effect size, click on the Determine button and enter the null hypothesis proportions in the first column and the proportions you hope to see in the second column. Then click on the Calculate and Transfer to Main Window button. Set your alpha and power, and be sure to set the degrees of freedom (Df); for an extrinsic null hypothesis, that will be the number of rows minus one.
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