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when Hilbert (transform) meets Riemann (hypothesis) ..
What is remarkable about this successful experiment is the cooperation of two spirit groups, Lifeline and Timestream, with two Earth groups, Metascience and CETL.
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The 5-dB exchange rate is sometimes called the OSHA rule; it is less protective than the equal-energy hypothesis. The 5-dB exchange rate attempts to account for the interruptions in noise exposures that commonly occur during the workday [40 Fed. Reg. 12336 (1975)], presuming that some recovery from temporary threshold shift occurs during these interruptions and the hearing loss is not as great as it would be if the noise were continuous. The rule makes no distinction between continuous and noncontinuous noise, and it will permit comparatively long exposures to continuous noise at higher sound levels than would be allowed by the 3-dB rule. On the basis of the limited data that existed in the early 1970's, NIOSH  recommended the 5-dB exchange rate; however, after reviewing the more recent scientific evidence, NIOSH now recommends the 3-dB exchange rate.
The Future of Human Evolution - Nick Bostrom
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Carotenoids and antioxidants -- Carotenoid-based signals are thought to be indicators of male quality because they must be obtained from the diet and might thus indicate the ability of individuals to gather high-quality food. However, carotenoids are also known to have important physiological functions as immunoenhancers and antioxidants, and, as such, carotenoid-based sexual traits have also been suggested to reflect the health and antioxidant status of their bearers. This last idea is based on the hypothesis that carotenoids that are allocated to sexual signals are no longer available for the detoxification system. Recently, this hypothesis has been challenged on the grounds that antioxidant activity is not the main biological role of carotenoids. Instead, carotenoid-based sexual traits might signal the availability of other non-pigmentary antioxidant molecules that might protect carotenoids from free radical attacks and make them available for sexual advertisements. That is, because carotenoids are very sensitive to oxidation that alters and destroys their color, their signalling function can only be ensured if they are protected from the oxidation. Hartley and Kennedy (2004) suggested that only individuals that have a very effective antioxidant machinery (vitamins C and E, catalase, superoxide dismutase) would have enough unbleached carotenoids available for the sexual signal. Therefore, although carotenoid-based signals might still indicate the overall antioxidant status of their bearer, the mechanisms would be slightly different from the one originally envisaged. Bertrand et al. (2006) tested this hypothesis with Zebra Finches, a passerine species with a carotenoid-based signal: the color of the bill. They simultaneously manipulated the availability of carotenoids and of a non-pigmentary antioxidant (melatonin) in the drinking water. If the antioxidant properties of melatonin protect carotenoids from oxidation, birds supplemented with melatonin should have redder bills than birds not supplemented with melatonin, and birds supplemented with carotenoids and melatonin should have redder bills than birds supplemented with carotenoids alone. The findings of Bertrand et al. (2006) are in agreement with these predictions because carotenoid and melatonin supplementation had an additive effect on bill color. Thus, this is the first experimental evidence that a non-pigmentary antioxidant enhances the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual trait.
One specific good genes model, however, the parasite hypothesis (Hamilton and Zuk 1982), provides a possible mechanism for the maintenance of heritable variation.
Academic paper with two dystopian evolutionary scenarios for humanity
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Historical introductions of species into new habitats can create rare opportunities to test evolutionary hypotheses, such as the role of natural selection in maintaining traits. Lahti (2005) examined two independent introductions of the African Village Weaverbird () to islands where selection on egg appearance traits is expected to differ markedly from that of the source populations. The color and spotting of village weaver eggs in Africa are highly consistent within clutches, but highly variable between individuals. These two features may be an evolutionary response to brood parasitism. In Africa, weavers are parasitized by each other and by the Diederik Cuckoo (), an egg mimic. African Village Weavers were introduced one century ago to Mauritius, and over two centuries ago to Hispaniola. Both islands are devoid of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In these two populations, between-individual variation and within-clutch consistency in egg appearance have both decreased, as has the incidence of spotting, relative to the source populations in Africa. These reductions are more pronounced on Hispaniola, the earlier introduction. Such changes support the hypothesis that egg appearance in the African Village Weaver has been maintained by natural selection as a counteradaptation to cuckoo brood parasitism. These results illustrate that the removal of an agent of selection can sometimes bring about rapid evolutionary consequences.
It is more likely that the ontogeny of aggression explanation invoked by Arnqvist and Henriksson (1997) accounts in part for the evolution of sexual cannibalism in Phidippus rimator. However, while Arnqvist and Henriksson developed their hypothesis as a fitness trade-off between aggressive behavior in juvenile and adult fishing spiders, I posit that this ontogenetic conflict of interest is absent, or at least less important, in P. rimator. It is likely that aggressive behavior is selectively advantageous in juvenile P. rimator, as in juvenile D. fimbriatus. However, while this behavior is thought to confer negative fitness to adult fishing spiders by decreasing fertilization rates of adult females (Arnqvist and Henriksson 1997), it may have a less deleterious effect on jumping spiders. Male P. rimator travel extensively in search of mates, and single males often fertilize multiple females (K.B. Suttle, personal observation). Thus a population of P. rimator could achieve a high reproductive rate despite a female-biased sex ratio. Furthermore, the increase in female survival conferred by high levels of adult aggression may offset fitness costs to females that remain unmated. Female P. rimator are central place foragers and are highly territorial (K.B. Suttle, personal observation). When a female is placed within the visual range of an established female, and there is mutual detection, one female is killed in over 50% of the resulting interactions. Because aggressive females will better defend their eggs and foraging space from competitors and potential predators, high levels of aggression may confer survival and fitness advantages to adult females. I hypothesize, therefore, that sexual cannibalism in Phidippus rimator may have evolved along a similar pathway to that in Dolomedes fimbriatus, but does not cause the same conflict of interest between the adults and juveniles that it does in D. fimbriatus. Furthermore, sexual cannibalism may be maintained in the species through a selective advantage of aggressive behavior to both juveniles and adults.
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Evidence for Creation | Answers in Genesis
One response to the evidence from the animal studies and certain field studies would be to select the 3-dB exchange rate but to allow an adjustment (increase) to the PEL for certain intermittent noise exposures, as suggested by EPA  and Johansson et al. . This response would be in contrast to a 5-dB exchange rate, for which there is little scientific justification. Ideally, if an adjustment is needed, the amount should be determined by the temporal pattern of the noise and the levels of quiet between noise bursts. At this time, however, little quantitative information is available about these parameters in industrial environments. Therefore, the need for an adjustment should be clarified by further research. Although the 3-dB rule may be somewhat conservative in truly intermittent conditions, the 5-dB rule will be underprotective in most others. The 3-dB exchange rate is the method most firmly supported by the scientific evidence for assessing hearing impairment as a function of noise level and duration, whether or not an adjustment is used for certain intermittent exposures.
Kindness Theme Movie Clips for Teaching and Sermon …
Even many scientists are showing spiritual inclinations when they use such terms as "morphogenetic fields." What is involved here is a spiritual development within these people which is usually accompanied by recognition of their own mistakes and faults.
NIOSH/Criteria for a Recommended Standard- …
What is required, however, is an integrated, systematic approach that will guide us towards those systems in which the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis is most likely to be important and which will allow us to place this model in its proper place (with respect to relative importance) among the other mechanisms that have been suggested.
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