Call us toll-free

Quick academic help

Don't let the stress of school get you down! Have your essay written by a professional writer before the deadline arrives.

Calculate the price


275 Words


when Hilbert (transform) meets Riemann (hypothesis) ..

What is remarkable about this successful experiment is the cooperation of two spirit groups, Lifeline and Timestream, with two Earth groups, Metascience and CETL.

called the handicap hypothesis, depends on parasitism as the critical evolutionary factor.
Photo provided by Flickr

The 5-dB exchange rate is sometimes called the OSHA rule; it is less protective than the equal-energy hypothesis. The 5-dB exchange rate attempts to account for the interruptions in noise exposures that commonly occur during the workday [40 Fed. Reg. 12336 (1975)], presuming that some recovery from temporary threshold shift occurs during these interruptions and the hearing loss is not as great as it would be if the noise were continuous. The rule makes no distinction between continuous and noncontinuous noise, and it will permit comparatively long exposures to continuous noise at higher sound levels than would be allowed by the 3-dB rule. On the basis of the limited data that existed in the early 1970's, NIOSH [1972] recommended the 5-dB exchange rate; however, after reviewing the more recent scientific evidence, NIOSH now recommends the 3-dB exchange rate.

The Future of Human Evolution - Nick Bostrom

Számadó, S & Penn, DJ 2015, ' Why does costly signalling evolve? Challenges with testing the handicap hypothesis ' Animal Behaviour, vol 110, pp. e9-e12.
Photo provided by Flickr

Carotenoids and antioxidants -- Carotenoid-based signals are thought to be indicators of male quality because they must be obtained from the diet and might thus indicate the ability of individuals to gather high-quality food. However, carotenoids are also known to have important physiological functions as immunoenhancers and antioxidants, and, as such, carotenoid-based sexual traits have also been suggested to reflect the health and antioxidant status of their bearers. This last idea is based on the hypothesis that carotenoids that are allocated to sexual signals are no longer available for the detoxification system. Recently, this hypothesis has been challenged on the grounds that antioxidant activity is not the main biological role of carotenoids. Instead, carotenoid-based sexual traits might signal the availability of other non-pigmentary antioxidant molecules that might protect carotenoids from free radical attacks and make them available for sexual advertisements. That is, because carotenoids are very sensitive to oxidation that alters and destroys their color, their signalling function can only be ensured if they are protected from the oxidation. Hartley and Kennedy (2004) suggested that only individuals that have a very effective antioxidant machinery (vitamins C and E, catalase, superoxide dismutase) would have enough unbleached carotenoids available for the sexual signal. Therefore, although carotenoid-based signals might still indicate the overall antioxidant status of their bearer, the mechanisms would be slightly different from the one originally envisaged. Bertrand et al. (2006) tested this hypothesis with Zebra Finches, a passerine species with a carotenoid-based signal: the color of the bill. They simultaneously manipulated the availability of carotenoids and of a non-pigmentary antioxidant (melatonin) in the drinking water. If the antioxidant properties of melatonin protect carotenoids from oxidation, birds supplemented with melatonin should have redder bills than birds not supplemented with melatonin, and birds supplemented with carotenoids and melatonin should have redder bills than birds supplemented with carotenoids alone. The findings of Bertrand et al. (2006) are in agreement with these predictions because carotenoid and melatonin supplementation had an additive effect on bill color. Thus, this is the first experimental evidence that a non-pigmentary antioxidant enhances the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual trait.

One specific good genes model, however, the parasite hypothesis (Hamilton and Zuk 1982), provides a possible mechanism for the maintenance of heritable variation.

Academic paper with two dystopian evolutionary scenarios for humanity

Handicap principle The handicap principle is a hypothesis originally proposed in 1975 by biologist Amotz Zahavi[1][2][3] to explain how evolution may
Photo provided by Flickr

Historical introductions of species into new habitats can create rare opportunities to test evolutionary hypotheses, such as the role of natural selection in maintaining traits. Lahti (2005) examined two independent introductions of the African Village Weaverbird () to islands where selection on egg appearance traits is expected to differ markedly from that of the source populations. The color and spotting of village weaver eggs in Africa are highly consistent within clutches, but highly variable between individuals. These two features may be an evolutionary response to brood parasitism. In Africa, weavers are parasitized by each other and by the Diederik Cuckoo (), an egg mimic. African Village Weavers were introduced one century ago to Mauritius, and over two centuries ago to Hispaniola. Both islands are devoid of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In these two populations, between-individual variation and within-clutch consistency in egg appearance have both decreased, as has the incidence of spotting, relative to the source populations in Africa. These reductions are more pronounced on Hispaniola, the earlier introduction. Such changes support the hypothesis that egg appearance in the African Village Weaver has been maintained by natural selection as a counteradaptation to cuckoo brood parasitism. These results illustrate that the removal of an agent of selection can sometimes bring about rapid evolutionary consequences.

It is more likely that the ontogeny of aggression explanation invoked by Arnqvist and Henriksson (1997) accounts in part for the evolution of sexual cannibalism in Phidippus rimator. However, while Arnqvist and Henriksson developed their hypothesis as a fitness trade-off between aggressive behavior in juvenile and adult fishing spiders, I posit that this ontogenetic conflict of interest is absent, or at least less important, in P. rimator. It is likely that aggressive behavior is selectively advantageous in juvenile P. rimator, as in juvenile D. fimbriatus. However, while this behavior is thought to confer negative fitness to adult fishing spiders by decreasing fertilization rates of adult females (Arnqvist and Henriksson 1997), it may have a less deleterious effect on jumping spiders. Male P. rimator travel extensively in search of mates, and single males often fertilize multiple females (K.B. Suttle, personal observation). Thus a population of P. rimator could achieve a high reproductive rate despite a female-biased sex ratio. Furthermore, the increase in female survival conferred by high levels of adult aggression may offset fitness costs to females that remain unmated. Female P. rimator are central place foragers and are highly territorial (K.B. Suttle, personal observation). When a female is placed within the visual range of an established female, and there is mutual detection, one female is killed in over 50% of the resulting interactions. Because aggressive females will better defend their eggs and foraging space from competitors and potential predators, high levels of aggression may confer survival and fitness advantages to adult females. I hypothesize, therefore, that sexual cannibalism in Phidippus rimator may have evolved along a similar pathway to that in Dolomedes fimbriatus, but does not cause the same conflict of interest between the adults and juveniles that it does in D. fimbriatus. Furthermore, sexual cannibalism may be maintained in the species through a selective advantage of aggressive behavior to both juveniles and adults.

Intelligent races who are not EARTH HUMANS
Photo provided by Flickr
Order now

    As soon as we have completed your work, it will be proofread and given a thorough scan for plagiarism.


    Our clients' personal information is kept confidential, so rest assured that no one will find out about our cooperation.


    We write everything from scratch. You'll be sure to receive a plagiarism-free paper every time you place an order.


    We will complete your paper on time, giving you total peace of mind with every assignment you entrust us with.


    Want something changed in your paper? Request as many revisions as you want until you're completely satisfied with the outcome.

  • 24/7 SUPPORT

    We're always here to help you solve any possible issue. Feel free to give us a call or write a message in chat.

Order now

Evidence for Creation | Answers in Genesis

One response to the evidence from the animal studies and certain field studies would be to select the 3-dB exchange rate but to allow an adjustment (increase) to the PEL for certain intermittent noise exposures, as suggested by EPA [1974] and Johansson et al. [1973]. This response would be in contrast to a 5-dB exchange rate, for which there is little scientific justification. Ideally, if an adjustment is needed, the amount should be determined by the temporal pattern of the noise and the levels of quiet between noise bursts. At this time, however, little quantitative information is available about these parameters in industrial environments. Therefore, the need for an adjustment should be clarified by further research. Although the 3-dB rule may be somewhat conservative in truly intermittent conditions, the 5-dB rule will be underprotective in most others. The 3-dB exchange rate is the method most firmly supported by the scientific evidence for assessing hearing impairment as a function of noise level and duration, whether or not an adjustment is used for certain intermittent exposures.

Kindness Theme Movie Clips for Teaching and Sermon …

Even many scientists are showing spiritual inclinations when they use such terms as "morphogenetic fields." What is involved here is a spiritual development within these people which is usually accompanied by recognition of their own mistakes and faults.

NIOSH/Criteria for a Recommended Standard- …

What is required, however, is an integrated, systematic approach that will guide us towards those systems in which the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis is most likely to be important and which will allow us to place this model in its proper place (with respect to relative importance) among the other mechanisms that have been suggested.

Order now
  • You submit your order instructions

  • We assign an appropriate expert

  • The expert takes care of your task

  • We send it to you upon completion

Order now
  • 37 684

    Delivered orders

  • 763

    Professional writers

  • 311

    Writers online

  • 4.8/5

    Average quality score

Order now
  • Kim

    "I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."

  • Paul

    "Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."

  • Ellen

    "Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."

  • Joyce

    "Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."

  • Albert

    "Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."

  • Mary

    "Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."

Ready to tackle your homework?

Place an order