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Microchannel Reactor for Fischer Tropsch Synthesis ..

The U.S. government provides several tax incentives for purchasing alternative fuel, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles; installing alternative fueling infrastructure; and producing, selling, or using alternative fuels. The IRS has defined alternative fuels as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); compressed natural gas (CNG); liquefied natural gas (LNG); liquefied hydrogen; liquid fuel derived from coal through the Fischer-Tropsch process; liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass including ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable diesel; and P-series fuels. Current federal tax incentives are outlined in this fact sheet.

Purchase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts and Catalysis, Volume 163 - 1st Edition

For the large-scale production of middle distillates and diesel fuel via FTS based gas-toliquids (GTL) processing, the use of slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reactor configurations appear to be generally favored by most technology developers. The slurry typically consists of mixture of catalyst and waxy paraffinic hydrocarbons.

methanol, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, ..

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) generally involves the synthesis of hydrocarbons and oxygenates from synthesis gas (syngas) consisting primarily of a mixture of CO + H2. The types of hydrocarbons produced can include olefins such as ethylene and propylene, and an extremely wide range of saturated hydrocarbons ranging from methane and ethane to long "straight chain" paraffinic waxes. The oxygenates produced primarily consist of alcohols such as methanol and ketones such as acetone. When configured to maximize the production of paraffinic hydrocarbons, the resulting intermediate product mix is often described as "synthetic crude oil" (syncrude). Such syncrudes can be readily refined into desirable distillate fuel fractions such as kerosene, naphtha, and heating oil using conventional petroleum refining techniques. The kerosene can be further refined or blended into high quality diesel or jet fuel products while the naphtha can be further refined into gasoline or used as a thermal cracking feedstock for olefins production.

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) generally involves the synthesis of hydrocarbons and oxygenates from synthesis gas (syngas) consisting primarily of a mixture of CO + H2. The types of hydrocarbons produced can include olefins such as ethylene and propylene, and an extremely wide range of saturated hydrocarbons ranging from methane and ethane to long "straight chain" paraffinic waxes. The oxygenates produced primarily consist of alcohols such as methanol and ketones such as acetone. When configured to maximize the production of paraffinic hydrocarbons, the resulting intermediate product mix is often described as "synthetic crude oil" (syncrude). Such syncrudes can be readily refined into desirable distillate fuel fractions such as kerosene, naphtha, and heating oil using conventional petroleum refining techniques. The kerosene can be further refined or blended into high quality diesel or jet fuel products while the naphtha can be further refined into gasoline or used as a thermal cracking feedstock for olefins production.

Modeling of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Reactor for GTL …

For the large-scale production of middle distillates and diesel fuel via FTS based gas-toliquids (GTL) processing, the use of slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reactor configurations appear to be generally favored by most technology developers. The slurry typically consists of mixture of catalyst and waxy paraffinic hydrocarbons. Potential drawbacks of such reactors appear to be the need for substantial liquid and syngas recycle streams as well as the need for large and costly heat transfer surface requirements to achieve the heat removal and mixing desired for this highly exothermic heterogeneous reaction environment. It has recently been proposed in the patent literature that the use of reactive distillation an alternative to conventional slurry phase FTS may facilitate such heat removal and mixing as well as improve product yields. Another potential advantage of reactive distillation would be the simplification of downstream product purification requirements. In this review, we perform a preliminary evaluation of our design concept for such a reactor system as applied to GTL diesel production.

The Role of Biomass in America?s Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus? model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

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Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Via Low Boiling Solvent …

Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel has moved one step closer to alternative fuel designation. The production of ethanol is growing rapidly in the U.S. Alternative fuel projects on Long Island have thrived, thanks to federal Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) funding. A new study by INFORM makes the case for waste trucks fueled by natural gas. And one writer extols the virtues of AFV commuting.

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Via Reactive Distillation

Because of its abundance and because it offers significant energy and envirnomental advantages, natural gas has been promoted for use in motor vehicles. A number of transportation fuels are produced from natural gas: each is distinct in terms of upstream production activities and vehicle usage. In this study, researchers evaluated eight fuels produced from natural gas - compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and electricity - for use in five types of motor vehicles - spark-ignition vehicles, compression-ignition vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, battery-powered electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles. Because of great uncertainties associated with advances in both fuel production and vehicle technologies, near-term and long-term fuels and vehicle technologies were evaluated separately. The study reveals that, in general, the use of petroleum-based fuels reduces energy use and emissions relative to use of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel, although different natural gas-based fuels in different vehicle technologies can have significantly different energy and emissions impacts.

From forest residues to renewable fuels

A Fischer–Tropsch process always forms part of a larger indirect liquefaction facility, which consists of three processing steps. The first step is to convert a carbon source, such as coal, natural gas, biomass, or organic waste, into synthesis gas (syngas). Syngas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and it is the feed material for a Fischer–Tropsch process, which is the second step in the indirect liquefaction process. Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is the catalytic polymerization and hydrogenation of CO, which produces a synthetic crude oil (syncrude). The syncrude is a multiphase mixture of hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and water. The third step is the refining of the syncrude to products that are traditionally produced from conventional crude oil, such as transportation fuels and petrochemicals. The current contribution deals only with the Fischer–Tropsch process; the generation of syngas and the refining of Fischer–Tropsch syncrude are not discussed in any detail. A Fischer–Tropsch process has three main elements: catalyst, reactor, and gas loop. Fischer–Tropsch catalysis is described to explain the relationship among the different catalyst types, operating conditions, and products. A description of the main syncrude types and their compositions is also provided. Fischer–Tropsch technologies are discussed, with an explanation of the relationship between catalyst and reactor, the tradeoffs involved in different catalyst–reactor combinations, as well as guidelines for technology selection. The role of the Fischer–Tropsch gas loop is outlined, with a discussion of the key elements of the gas loop and how they affect the overall performance of a Fischer–Tropsch process.

Monetizing associated gas - Oil & Gas Financial Journal

Using the "total energy cycle" methodology, the report compares U.S. near term (to about 2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles. For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways: (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion; (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining. The report examines incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as oil sands, Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas, and ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The report compares such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including new coal boilers;integrated, gasified coal combined cycle;existing natural gas fueled combined cycle;existing natural gas combustion turbines;wood-to-electricity;and wind/solar. Also considered was a simulated fuel cell HEV and a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle.

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