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SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOPROTEINS - SlideServe

The influenza virus neuraminidase (NA), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed at the surface of infected cells and is a major structural component of the virion. The kinetics of biosynthesis of NA, including modification of N-linked sugar chains, association with GRP78-BiP, oligomerization, and transport to the cell surface, were examined in A/WSN/33 influenza-infected BHK cells. Prior to gaining endoglycosidase H (endo H) resistance, NA was found to transiently associate with GRP78-BiP (t21 ≈ 5 min). The protein was synthesized as a monomer and within 10 min a significant fraction of it was chased into dimers and tetramers with a t 1 2 ≈ 15 to 20 min before endo H resistance was acquired suggesting that oligomerization took place in the endoplasmic reticulum. WSN NA remained completely endo H sensitive up to 15 min after synthesis, acquired partial resistance to endo H between 15 and 30 min (t 1 2 ≈ 25 min) after synthesis and exhibited heterogeneity in endo H-resistant forms. NA was first detected at the cell surface 30 min after synthesis, increased to a maximum at 1 hr, after which it decreased, presumably due to incorporation into virions. The results on the biosynthesis of NA, a type II protein for which the three-dimensional structure is known, will be useful in structure/function and virion assembly studies.

BIOSYNTHESIS OF GLYCOPROTEINS - Membrane Glycoproteins …

N2 - Reported here are analyses of the interactions between a select group of solution-phase glycoproteins and a unique boronic acid capture surface. The boronic acid derivative, 4-[(2-aminoethyl)carbamoyl]phenylboronic acid, AECPBA, was synthesized and then immobilized on carboxymethyl dextran surfaces using simple coupling methods. From surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy responses, it is found that model glycoproteins interact strongly with the AECPBA surface and subsequently can be readily released from the AECPBA surface using borate buffer. A striking difference between the glycoproteins fetuin and asialofetuin (desialylated fetuin), in terms of glycoprotein binding to the AECPBA surface, indicates that the interaction of glycoproteins with the immobilized AECPBA is dictated by the terminal saccharide of the heteroglycan chain. Surprisingly, secondary interactions of glycosylated and nonglycosylated proteins with the carboxymethyl dextran hydrogel matrix are observed. Importantly, it is demonstrated that use of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer allows for decreased secondary interactions of nonglycosylated proteins on the AECPBA/dextran surface, as noted with the model protein ExtrAvidin.

Ten – BIOSYNTHESIS OF GLYCOPROTEINS

T1 - Synthesis and processing of the influenza virus neuraminidase, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein

Class I MHC glycoproteins are expressed on the surface of all somatic nucleated cells, with the exception of neurons. MHC class I receptors present peptide antigens that are synthesised in the cytoplasm, which includes self-peptides (presented for self-tolerance) as well as foreign peptides (such as viral proteins). These antigens are generated from degraded protein fragments that are transported to the endoplasmic reticulum by TAP proteins (transporter of antigenic peptides), where they can bind MHC I molecules, before being transported to the cell surface via the Golgi apparatus [, ]. MHC class I receptors display antigens for recognition by cytotoxic T cells, which have the ability to destroy viral-infected or malignant (surfeit of self-peptides) cells.

The constituents of cell walls are synthesised in the cytoplasm, linked in the walls at the hyphal tip, and polymerised and cross-linked in the wall matrix. Chitin (structure of the monomer shown right) and the glucans are synthesised at the plasma membrane by enzymes embedded in the membrane. Nucleotide sugar precursors are accepted from the cytoplasm, linked and passed to the wall. Wall glycoproteins are synthesised in the endoplasmic reticulum, carried through the Golgi to the plasma membrane, where vesicles release the glycoprotein to the wall. Enzymes cross-linking fibrils in the wall are released through the plasma membrane.

Chemoenzymatic synthesis of phosphorylated glycoproteins.

Wall glycoproteins are synthesised in the endoplasmic reticulum, carried through the …

N2 - The in vitro non-natural amino acid mutagenesis method provides the opportunity to introduce non-natural amino acids site-specifically into proteins. To this end, a chemically synthesised aminoacylated dinucleotide is enzymatically ligated to a truncated suppressor transfer RNA. The loaded suppressor tRNA is then used in translation reactions to read an internal stop codon. Here we report an advanced and general strategy for the synthesis of the aminoacyl dinucleotide. The protecting group pattern developed for the dinucleotide facilitates highly efficient aminoacylation, followed by one-step global deprotection. The strategy was applied to the synthesis of dinucleotides loaded with 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-glycosylated amino acids, including N- and O-β-glycosides and O- and C-α-glycosides of amino acids, thus enabling the extension of in vitro non-natural amino acid mutagenesis towards the synthesis of natural glycoproteins of high biological interest. We demonstrate the incorporation of the glycosylamino acids-although with low suppression efficiency-into the human interleukin granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF), as verified by the ELISA technique.

AB - The influenza virus neuraminidase (NA), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed at the surface of infected cells and is a major structural component of the virion. The kinetics of biosynthesis of NA, including modification of N-linked sugar chains, association with GRP78-BiP, oligomerization, and transport to the cell surface, were examined in A/WSN/33 influenza-infected BHK cells. Prior to gaining endoglycosidase H (endo H) resistance, NA was found to transiently associate with GRP78-BiP (t21 ≈ 5 min). The protein was synthesized as a monomer and within 10 min a significant fraction of it was chased into dimers and tetramers with a t 1 2 ≈ 15 to 20 min before endo H resistance was acquired suggesting that oligomerization took place in the endoplasmic reticulum. WSN NA remained completely endo H sensitive up to 15 min after synthesis, acquired partial resistance to endo H between 15 and 30 min (t 1 2 ≈ 25 min) after synthesis and exhibited heterogeneity in endo H-resistant forms. NA was first detected at the cell surface 30 min after synthesis, increased to a maximum at 1 hr, after which it decreased, presumably due to incorporation into virions. The results on the biosynthesis of NA, a type II protein for which the three-dimensional structure is known, will be useful in structure/function and virion assembly studies.

How are glycoproteins synthesised
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The in vitro non-natural amino acid mutagenesis method provides the opportunity to introduce non-natural amino acids site-specifically into proteins. To this end, a chemically synthesised aminoacylated dinucleotide is enzymatically ligated to a truncated suppressor transfer RNA. The loaded suppressor tRNA is then used in translation reactions to read an internal stop codon. Here we report an advanced and general strategy for the synthesis of the aminoacyl dinucleotide. The protecting group pattern developed for the dinucleotide facilitates highly efficient aminoacylation, followed by one-step global deprotection. The strategy was applied to the synthesis of dinucleotides loaded with 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-glycosylated amino acids, including N- and O-β-glycosides and O- and C-α-glycosides of amino acids, thus enabling the extension of in vitro non-natural amino acid mutagenesis towards the synthesis of natural glycoproteins of high biological interest. We demonstrate the incorporation of the glycosylamino acids-although with low suppression efficiency-into the human interleukin granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF), as verified by the ELISA technique.

Glycoproteins are proteins that contain ..

T1 - A new strategy for the synthesis of dinucleotides loaded with glycosylated amino acids - Investigations on in vitro non-natural amino acid mutagenesis for glycoprotein synthesis

Glycoprotein - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, …

AB - For sperm to fertilize eggs, they must bind to and penetrate the zona pellucida (ZP) that surrounds the plasma membrane of all mammalian eggs. The ZP first appears during oocyte growth and increases in thickness as oocytes increase in diameter. The ZP is an extracellular matrix composed of long, crosslinked filaments. In mice, three glycoproteins, called mZP1-3, are synthesised and secreted by growing oocytes and assembled into a thick (-6.5 microm) extracellular coat over a 2-3 week period. Recently, we identified several regions of nascent ZP glycoproteins that affect their secretion and incorporation into the ZP (assembly) by growing oocytes. Among these are the ZP domain, the consensus furin cleavage site (CFCS) and the C-terminal propeptide (CTP) with its transmembrane domain (TMD), external hydrophobic patch (EHP), charged patch (CP), conserved cysteine (Cys) residue, and short cytoplasmic tail (CT). Particularly important is the ZP domain, a approximately 260 amino acid region with 8 conserved Cys residues that is common to a variety of extracellular proteins of diverse functions found in a wide range of multicellular eukaryotes. Our results show that the ZP domain functions as a polymerisation module and that its N-terminal half, including 4 conserved Cys residues, is largely responsible for this role. Additionally, two conserved hydrophobic sequences, one within the ZP domain (internal hydrophobic patch; IHP) and another within the CTP (EHP), apparently regulate polymerisation of nascent ZP glycoproteins. Collectively, our findings suggest a general mechanism for assembly of all ZP domain proteins based on coupling between proteolytic processing and polymerisation.

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