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Synthesis of Glycol Chitosan-EDTA Conjugate
The influence of the poly(ethylene glycol)–chitosan hybrids on complement component C3 activation was investigated by single radial immunodiffusion method.
Feng, Jiao; Chen, Yan; Li, Feng; Cui, Lili; Shi, Nianqiu; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Yong. 2017. "Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation of a Novel Glycol Chitosan-EDTA Conjugate to Inhibit Aminopeptidase-Mediated Degradation of Thymopoietin Oligopeptides." Molecules 22, no. 8: 1253.
In vivo imaging of glycol chitosan-based nanogel biodistribution.
119. Germershaus O, Mao SR, Sitterberg J, Bakowsky U, Kissel T. Gene delivery using chitosan, trimethyl chitosan or polyethylenglycol-graft-trimethyl chitosan block copolymers: establishment of structure-activity relationships in vitro. 2008;2(125):145-154
120. Chan P, Kurisawa M, Chung JE, Yang YY. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-g-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate as a non-viral carrier for tumor-targeted gene delivery. 2007;3(28):540-549
Methacrylated glycol chitosan as a photopolymerizable biomaterial.
Although many synthetic routes have been developed for the preparation of iron oxide core with tunable shape, size and magnetization, several challenges remain for the naked SPIONs in terms of stem cell labeling, including: (i) poor water solubility and tendency of aggregation due to large surface/volume ratio; (ii) low cellular uptake efficiency; (iii) potential toxicity. To address these problems, the most straightforward and effective method seems to be coating the iron oxide core by a layer. The nature of the surface coatings and modification methods determine the physical and biologic properties such as the overall size, surface charge, coating density, toxicity and degradability, which finally affect the fate of SPIONPs in the cells [, ]. This following section focuses on the currently used surface modification materials (e.g. PLL, PEI, chitosan, PEG, citric acid and so on) and methods (e.g. coating, post-synthesis coatings including blending, polymerization, ligand exchange) for the SPIONs applied for stem cell labeling and tracking. The influence of these factors on labeling efficiency and biocompatibility is also discussed.
The modes of administration also significantly influence gene delivery efficiency and new methods have been reported [-]. Using a novel technique, Dai et al. studied the gene delivery by chitosan-DNA nanoparticles through retrograde intrabiliary infusion (RII), which proved a possible routine to achieve low-toxic, liver-targeted gene delivery .
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polyethylene glycol (PEG) , chitosan ..
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are particularly attractive as antibacterial agents owing to their precise bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in vivo achieved by magnetic driving. In this work, superparamagnetic IONPs modified with water-soluble glycol chitosan (GC-coated IONPs) was synthesized by coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of antibacterial activity. Comparison of Fourier transform infrared spectra of uncoated and GC-coated IONPs as well as their magnetization and thermogravimetric curves revealed the GC coating did occur on IONPs. Additionally, the magnetization curves showed both bare and GC-coated IONPs to be superparamagnetic with the saturation magnetization being 70.3 and 59.8 emu/g, respectively. The average diameter of synthesized IONPs as determined from the transmission electron micrograph was ~ 8–9 nm, while X-ray diffraction spectra depicted the synthesized IONPs to be single crystals belonging to magnetite. Based on the MIC values determined by agar dilution assay, both bare and GC-coated IONPs were effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 compared to the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor. However, for E. coli O157:H7 TWC 01 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, GC-coated IONPs showed higher potency than bare IONPs, which may be due to the hydrophilic nature of GC-coated IONPs.
of TPP and free chains of chitosan
This study describes the synthesis method of water-soluble, low-toxicity, photostable highly luminescent probes based on I–III–VI2 type semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and the possibility of tumor targeting in living animals. Cd-free high-quality CuInS2/ZnS core/shell QDs were synthesized, and their surfaces were reacted with mercaptoundecanoic acid for aqueous phase transfer followed by reaction with glycol-chitosan; lastly, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding peptide was covalently attached for in vivo tumor targeting. Dowtherm A, a highly viscous heat-transfer organic fluid, was used to control semiconductor crystal growth at high temperature (>230 °C) during organic synthesis. The structural and optical properties of the resulting CuInS2/ZnS QDs were investigated. The average diameters of CuInS2 and CuInS2/ZnS QDs were 3.0 and 3.7 nm, respectively. Cell toxicity and in vivo tumor targetability in RR1022 cancer cell-xenografted mice were further evaluated using cRGDyk-tagged glycol-chitosan-coated CuInS2/ZnS QDs. Glycol-chitosan-coated MUA-QDs displayed a Z-average diameter of 203.8 ± 7.67 nm in water by dynamic light scattering.
Glycol chitosan, 76.2%, MP Biomedicals:: - Fisher Scientific
Given the number of monogenic ocular diseases and the number of non-monogenic degenerative ocular diseases for which gene therapy is considered as a treatment, the development of effective therapeutic delivery strategies for DNA is a critical research goal. In this work, nonviral nanoparticles (NPs) composed of glycol chitosan (GCS) and plasmid DNA (pDNA) were generated, characterized, and evaluated. These particles are stable, do not aggregate in saline, are resistant to DNases, and have a hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 250 nm. Furthermore, the plasmid in these NPs was shown to maintain its proper conformation and can be released and expressed inside the cell. To determine whether these NPs would be suitable for intraocular use, pDNA carrying the ubiquitously expressed CBA-eGFP expression cassette was compacted and subretinally injected into adult wild-type albino mice. At day 14 post-injection (PI), substantial green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was observed exclusively in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in eyes treated with GCS NPs but not in those treated with uncompacted pDNA or vehicle (saline). No signs of gross retinal toxicity were observed, and at 30 days PI, there was no difference in electroretinogram function between GCS NP-, pDNA-, or vehicle-treated eyes. These results suggest that with further development, GCS NPs could be a useful addition to the available repertoire of genetic therapies for the treatment of RPE-associated diseases. Healthy vision for the future! Successful treatment of ocular genetic diseases requires development of multiple different treatment approaches. Here, novel glycol chitosan-based nanoparticles were designed and characterized. These NPs were shown to deliver DNA successfully to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and promote gene expression in vivo.
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