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Haworth‐style projection of the structure of α‐‐glucose.

Moreover, to summarize a rather complex situation, when a person exercises, the glycogen is depleted from the muscles that are being utilized. If the person then consumes complex carbs, the bonds between the glucose molecules will be broken down; the liver will then allow the glucose to pass through to the muscles until muscle glycogen stores are replenished. In this way, muscle glycogen will be available to provide energy for the next workout. The liver will then use any additional glucose from complex carbs to replenish its own glycogen stores. Once both muscle and liver glycogen stores are full, any additional carbs consumed will be stored as body fat.

It is a particular risk if one starts a ride withouta full tank, so to speak, of muscle glycogen.

Also, sucrose is a disaccharide consisting of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose. "HFCS consists of 55 percent fructose blended with 45 percent glucose" (Challem). So only half of the carbs in sugar and a little less than half of the carbs in HFCS can be used to replenish muscle glycogen.

Reaction catalysed by glycogen phosphorylase.

Vardanis A and Hudson AJ (1991) Regulation of glycogen synthesis in human skeletal muscle: does cellular glycogen control glycogen synthase phosphatase activity? Biochemistry International 25(2): 289–298.

Nuttall FQ and Gannon MC (1993) Allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase in liver. A physiological dilemma. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268(18): 13286–13290.

Are regulated ____ by ______ of glycolysis

However, an entirely different situation exists when fructose is consumed. Since fructose cannot be used to replenish muscle glycogen, there is no reason for the liver to let it pass through to the muscles. Instead, the liver will use the fructose to replenish its own glycogen stores. Once those stores are full, any additional fructose consumed will be converted into body fat. But the muscle glycogen will remain depleted, so there will be no energy available, and the exerciser will most likely drag through the next workout (summarized from Parillo, pp. 19-21).

The liver of an average man stores about 90 to 100 grams of glycogen and once this gets diminished proteins begin to be leached out of the skeletal muscles to be converted into glucose by the liver (obviously not a good situation for muscle strength and size). Under "normal" metabolic conditions, if you ate no carbs at all your body would convert up to 200 grams of protein a day into glucose just to feed the brain. Here's a little section that I wrote about 10 years ago in one of my notebooks:

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I suspect it was just enough to deplete muscle glycogen stores.

Nakielny S, Campbell DG and Cohen P (1991) The molecular mechanism by which adrenalin inhibits glycogen synthesis. European Journal of Biochemistry 199: 713–722.

1. Carbon atoms of glucose are ___

Complex carbs, on the other hand, raise blood sugar slowly (generally) not leading to large secretions of insulin or the preferential storage of fat (unless, of course, energy requirements are already met and glycogen stores are already filled). This also has the effect of resulting in better glycogen storage in the muscles because glycogen storage enzymes aren't "over-flooded" and excess glucose isn't hastily converted into fat. In addition, having a moderate insulin level in the bloodstream (as promoted by complex carbs) has other very important muscle-building advantages: It keeps cortisol (a catabolic hormone) levels low and keeps proteins from being taken out of the muscles and brought to the liver for oxidation or conversion to glycogen; it facilitates the entry of certain amino acids into muscle cells; and it may inhibit androgen-binding globules which bind testosterone and keep it from breaking into its free (active) form.

Synthesis of glycogen from DHAP and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Edit

To review, the body can use glucose to replenish muscle glycogen, but it cannot use fructose. Fructose can only be used to replenish liver glycogen.

Net glycogen synthesis appeared linear and was faster with ..

Be sure to note the most important point here, "… once liver glycogen stores are full, the liver says, ‘We've got all the glycogen we can hold, so any more carbs coming in here we'll just convert to fat'" (Parillo, p.22).

Maximizing Glycogen: The Role of Fructose - Science …

Meinke MH and Edstrom RD (1991) Muscle glycogenolysis. Regulation of the cyclic interconversion of phosphorylase a and phosphorylase b. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266(4): 2259–2266.

Glycogen Synthesis - The Medical Biochemistry Page

(Ivy JL et al,J Appl Physiol 1988 Apr;64(4):1480-5).This slowing of the glycogen repletion rate occurs even when plasma glucose and insulin levels remain elevated with oral supplements.

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