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Gibberellin Biosynthesis: Its Regulation by Endogenous …

1961, 83, 3080) made the first total synthesis of arachidonic acid.

Imai J demonstrated that the oxidative desaturation of a saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid) is depressed in diabetic rats ().

Kennedy EP described the general pathways of the glycerolipid biosynthesis in animal cells ().

Bremer J et al.

(2012) Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation

The diterpenoid phytohormone gibberellin (GA) plays pivotal roles in regulating growth and development throughout the life cycle of higher plants. Mutations affecting GA biosynthesis or GA response were the key to control plant stature in wheat and rice that led to dramatically increased grain yield and contributed greatly to the success of the ‘Green Revolution’ in the 1960s. Although the GA biosynthetic pathway had been characterized biochemically, little was known about the sites of GA production and the mode of GA action. By multi-faceted approaches using the model system Arabidopsis, my lab has made major breakthroughs in revealing the sites and regulatory mechanisms of GA biosynthesis. We also elucidated the conserved molecular events of GA perception and the early GA signaling pathway. We identified the nuclear transcriptional regulators DELLA proteins, which function as master growth repressors by inhibiting all aspects of GA responses. Binding of GA to its nuclear receptor GID1 enhances the GID1-DELLA interaction, which in turn leads to the rapid proteolysis of DELLA through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and allows transcriptional reprogramming of GA-responsive genes. We and other researchers further showed that GA-GID1-DELLA is a key regulatory module that controls plant growth by integrating internal developmental cues, and external biotic and abiotic signals (light, cold, salt and pathogen stresses). Surprisingly, we recently found that DELLA directly interacts with multiple classes of key regulatory proteins in other signaling pathways. Our work is revealing the complex regulatory network between the GA pathway and other pathways to control plant growth and development.

Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Its Regulation | SpringerLink

O'Neill DP and Ross JJ (2002) Auxin regulation of the gibberellin pathway in pea. Plant Physiology 130(4): 1974–1982.

Rojas MC, Hedden P, Gaskin P and Tudzynski B (2001) The P450‐1 gene of Gibberella fujikuroi encodes a multifunctional enzyme in gibberellin biosynthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 98(10): 5838–5843.

* Trinexapac-ethyl is a plant growth regulator (available commercially asNovartis' Primo) that interferes with gibberellin biosynthesis andsuppresses plant shoot growth.

Gibberellin Biosynthesis and the Regulation of Plant ..

Lange MJP and Lange T (2006) Gibberellin biosynthesis and the regulation of plant development. Plant Biology 8(3): 281–290.

of arelationship between inositol lipids and cell proliferation (lymphocytesstimulated with phytohaemagglutinin) ().

First description of a "peptidelipid" surfactant (surfactin) composedof seven amino acids and one fatty acid (cyclic lipopeptide) produced by Marcel YL et al.

29-70).

The first component protein of an enzyme of fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acidsynthase, was purified ().

Polyprenol diphosphates were shown to be involved in the biosynthesis ofpolysaccharides in () and in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycans in ().

The structure of juvenile hormone of insects was elucidated by Roller H ().

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Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation (PDF …

discovered the essentiality of thelong-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) ().

Anderson RJ reported the presence of inositol in lipids of tubercle bacilli ().

First demonstration of the biosynthesis of vitamin A from

"Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation"

Thomas SG, Phillips AL and Hedden P (1999) Molecular cloning and functional expression of gibberellin 2‐oxidases, multifunctional enzymes involved in gibberellin deactivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 96(8): 4698–4703.

"Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation"

reported the reversed-phase separation of fatty acids by acomplex two-dimensional TLC employing a catalytic hydrogenationon the plate ().

First description of a direct titration method for analytical hydrogenation todetermine precisely the unsaturation of lipids ().

Discovery of O-amino acid (alanyl and lysyl) esters of phosphatidylglycerol in agram-positive bacteria ().

The first GLC analysis of natural triglycerides from milk fat was reported ().

Hematoside, the ganglioside of horse erythrocytes, is the first ganglioside(GM3) whose structure was elucidated ().

The complete structure of sulfatide (sulfated galactosylceramide) was elucidatedincluding the position of the sulfate group attached to the C3 of galactose ().

Methyl jasmonate was discovered in flowers of jasmine and was shown to be afragrant component in the essential oil from these flowers ().

Discovery of diether-type phospholipids in a an extremely halophilic bacteria () ().

First demonstration of the presence of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid and itsglycerol ester in lipid extractsof the sea anemone, ().

Gibberellin biosynthesis and the regulation of plant development

Silverstone AL, Chang CW, Krol E and Sun TP (1997) Developmental regulation of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene GA1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Journal 12(1): 9–19.

Gibberellin Metabolism and its Regulation

All the biostimulants mentioned above, including amino acid products andsilicates, promote turfgrass antioxidant activity and enhance stresstolerance. Products we've used in some of our studies, aside from thosealready mentioned, include Macro-sorb amino acid (Nutramax, Baltimore, Md.)and potassium silicate Kasil #1 (PQ Corp., Chester, Pa.). Many otherproducts are available that incorporate these or other ingredients, seaweedextract and humic acids being among the most frequently used.

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