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Rapid Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid Test
The role of the GHB receptor in the behavioral effects induced by GHB is more complex. GHB receptors are densely expressed in many areas of the brain, including the cortex and hippocampus, and these are the receptors that GHB displays the highest affinity for. There has been somewhat limited research into the GHB receptor; however, there is evidence that activation of the GHB receptor in some brain areas results in the release of glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter. that selectively activate the GHB receptor cause absence seizures in high doses, as do GHB and GABA(B) agonists.
In humans, GHB has been shown to inhibit the elimination rate of alcohol. This may explain the respiratory arrest that has been reported after ingestion of both drugs. A review of the details of 194 deaths attributed to or related to GHB over a ten-year period found that most were from respiratory depression caused by interaction with alcohol or other drugs.
Analogs of .gamma.-hydroxybutyric acid
Gamma hydroxybutyric acid [GHB] is a naturally occurring short-chainfatty acid metabolite of gamma amino butyric acid [GABA]. Isolatedduring research on GABA, GHB is found in all body tissues, withthe highest concentration in the mammalian brain. Its role asa possible neurotransmitter is still being evaluated. It is involvedin the regulation of GABA, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, andacetylcholine. Research indicates that GHB produces deep reversibledepression of cerebral metabolism, increases dopamine concentrations,induces hypothermia [through decreases in metabolic heat productionand increases in peripheral heat loss through the skin. In monitoredsedation, GHB decreases cardiac output due to slight decreasesin stroke volume and heart rate. In the brain, GHB increases acetylcholineand affects the rate of serotonin metabolism. The precise functionand metabolic pathways of GHB are complex and not yet fully understood.
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid and sodium oxybate (INN) when used for medicinal purposes, is a naturally occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all animals in small amounts. It is also categorized as an in many countries. It is currently regulated in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, most of Europe and in the US. GHB as the sodium salt, known as sodium oxybate, is sold by Jazz Pharmaceuticals under the name Xyrem to treat cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid - DrugBank
In the United States, it was placed on Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act in March 2000. However, when sold as Xyrem, it is considered Schedule III, one of several drugs that are listed in multiple schedules. On 20 March 2001, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs placed GHB in Schedule IV of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In the UK it was made a class C drug in June 2003.
GHB has also been associated with a withdrawal syndrome of insomnia, anxiety, and tremor that usually resolves within three to twelve days. Treatment with can be used, although extremely high doses may be required (e.g. > 100 mg/d of diazepam). With the exception of baclofen, other treatments are often ineffective. Evidence shows that baclofen is the most effective drug for GHB withdrawal. GHB and baclofen are agonists for the GABAb receptor. Benzodiazepines do not affect GABAB receptors and thus have no cross-tolerance with GHB; baclofen which works via GABAB receptors is cross-tolerant with GHB and is effective in alleviating withdrawal effects of GHB. Thus baclofen can be used to substitute for GHB and gradually titrated to reduce withdrawal severity.
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gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid - History
A popular children's toy, Bindeez (also known as Aqua Dots, in the United States), produced by Melbourne company Moose, was banned in Australia in early November 2007 when it was discovered that 1,4-butanediol (1,4-B), which is metabolized into GHB, had been substituted for the non-toxic plasticiser 1,5-pentanediol in the bead manufacturing process. Three young children were hospitalized as a result of ingesting a large number of the beads, and the toy was recalled.
Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid | Psychology Wiki | …
However, at pharmacological doses, GHB reaches much higher concentrations in the brain and activates GABAB receptors, which are primarily responsible for its sedative effects. GHB's sedative effects are blocked by GABAB antagonists.
Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid - Revolvy
Synthesis of the chemical GHB was first reported in 1874 by Alexander Zaytsev, but the first major research into its use in humans was conducted in the early 1960s by Dr. Henri Laborit to use in studying the neurotransmitter GABA. It quickly found a wide range of uses due to its minimal side-effects and short duration of action, the only difficulties being the narrow therapeutic dosage range (despite an unusually high LD50) and the dangers presented by its combination with and other central nervous system depressants.
Use of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid Salts for ..
Recently, analogs of GHB, such as 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid have been synthesized and tested on animals, in order to gain a better understanding of GHB's mode of action. Analogues of GHB such as 3-methyl-GHB, 4-methyl-GHB and 4-phenyl-GHB have been shown to produce similar effects to GHB in some animal studies, but these compounds are even less well researched than GHB itself. Of these analogues, only 4-methyl-GHB (γ-hydroxyvaleric acid, GHV) and its prodrug form gamma-valerolactone (GVL) have been reported as drugs of abuse in humans, and on the available evidence seem to be less potent but more toxic than GHB, with a particular tendency to cause nausea and vomiting.
08/11/1990 · GHB: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate
Other prodrug ester forms of GHB have also rarely been encountered by law enforcement, including 1,4-diacetoxybutane, methyl-4-acetoxybutanoate, and ethyl-4-acetoxybutanoate, but these are, in general, covered by analogue laws in jurisdictions where GHB is illegal, and little is known about them beyond their delayed onset and longer duration of action. The intermediate compound 4-hydroxybutaldehyde is also a prodrug for GHB; however, as with all aldehydes this compound is caustic and is strong-smelling and foul-tasting; actual use of this compound as an intoxicant is likely to be unpleasant and result in severe nausea and vomiting.
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