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Genetic Regulations of the Biosynthesis of Microbial Surfactants: ..
Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1T is the type strain of a novel species in the recently published novel genus Polymorphum isolated from saline soil contaminated with crude oil. It is capable of using crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source and can adapt to saline soil at a temperature of 45°C. The Polymorphum gilvum genome provides a genetic basis for understanding how the strain could degrade crude oil and adapt to a saline environment. Genome analysis revealed the versatility of the strain for emulsifying crude oil, metabolizing aromatic compounds (a characteristic specific to the Polymorphum gilvum genome in comparison with other known genomes of oil-degrading bacteria), as well as possibly metabolizing n-alkanes through the LadA pathway. In addition, COG analysis revealed Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1T has significantly higher abundances of the proteins responsible for cell motility, lipid transport and metabolism, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, transport and catabolism than the average levels found in all other genomes sequenced thus far, but lower abundances of the proteins responsible for carbohydrate transport and metabolism, defense mechanisms, and translation than the average levels. These traits support the adaptability of Polymorphum gilvum to a crude oil-contaminated saline environment. The Polymorphum gilvum genome could serve as a platform for further study of oil-degrading microorganisms for bioremediation and microbial-enhanced oil recovery in harsh saline environments.
Firstly, biosurfactants, with glycolipids and lipopeptides reported as the most common ones produced by hydrocarbon degrading microbes , can emulsify and solublize the hydrocarbons to increase the microbial connection with oil components. Genes encoding the key enzymes in glycolipid synthesis in the genome of SL003B-26A1T, include acyltransferase, 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase, glycosyltransferase, phosphomannomutase (AlgC), and ketoreductase (RhlG) . Three genes encoding OmpA-like proteins found are related to lipopeptide synthesis. The proteins are characteristic with its highly hydrophobic amino acid composition within four putative extra-membrane loops, which were suggested to be the active component of the bioemulsifier alasan , ().
Genetic Regulations of the Biosynthesis of Microbial ..
At the regulation level, 12 LuxR regulator coding genes were identified, including two LasR-LasI TCS systems (SL003B_0642-0643 and SL003B_0701-0702). The LasR regulator was reported to be related to regulation of glycolipid biosynthesis under the autoinducer LasI .
Thirdly, strain SL003B-26A1T has 12 genes for type VI pili assembly, which mediates biofilm formation and microbial adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces , , and the oil-water interface. The TCS for flagella biosynthesis and cell motility was also identified, including the response regulators CheY ( and ) activated by the regulators CheA (SL003B_0948), CheW (SL003B_0949), CheB (SL003B_0951), and CheR (SL003B_0952) . Flagella assembly plays an important role in cell motility and chemotaxis, which could also help bacteria move to relatively better niches and attach to the oil-water interface where the degradation of alkanes can take place and more carbon sources are available for growth ( and ).
Microbial Surfactants - [PDF Document]
This module is only available to those students who enter under the B990 programme. The Molecular Clinical Microbiology module will deliver microbiology from a molecular perspective and describe its use in clinical microbiology. The module will develop the theme of basic microbiology and clinical microbiology taught in the level 4 module (the basic microbiology module) and the level 5 module (the clinical microbiology module). It will include the background and techniques to gene expression and regulation, genetic transfer, the synthesis of macromolecules, sub-cellular organization, cell to cell communication, molecular aspects of pathogenicity and virulence and the relationship of these to clinical microbiology. Microbial diversity will be taught at the species level by comparing of 16S RNA sequences and at the subspecies level by MLST. VNTR and SNPS will be taught to index diversity of genetically monomorphic bacteria. Real-time PCR will be taught for laboratory identification of microbial diversity. Bioinformatics will be used to catalogue diversity and genomics used to interpret diversity.
Prerequisites: Basic Biochemistry (SBS017). This module covers a range of topics including: Chemical reactions - Biochemical logic. Biochemistry of some vitamin and coenzyme catalysed reactions. Glycogen synthesis and degradation. Pentose phosphate pathway. Gluconeogenesis. Amino acid metabolism and the urea cycle. Fatty acid synthesis and breakdown. Prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis. Purine, pyrimidine and deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. Control and regulation of metabolism.
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Chapter 33 - Toxicology INTRODUCTION
Analyses of the abundance of the COG categories of Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2, and Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans AK-01 revealed similarities and differences among these hydrocarbon-degrading strains. The toxicity and low availability of oil components as carbon sources could be the driving forces for these bacteria to evolve sensitive sensing and response systems to avoid damage by hydrocarbons and pursue nutrients. In the genomes of SL003B-26A1T, SK2, NG80-2, and AK-01, the abundances of protein categories responsible for carbohydrate transport and metabolism are lower than the average value for all genomes in the IMG database. This is in accord with the low carbohydrate availability in the environments where these strains were isolated. Fatty acids are important intermediate products in the alkane degradation pathway, and lipid transport and metabolism are therefore important for the further degradation of alkanes. It is therefore reasonable that the abundances of protein categories responsible for lipid transport and metabolism, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism, are higher in the genomes of SL003B-26A1T, SK2, NG80-2, and AK-01 than the average level in all other genomes. The high abundance of lipid metabolism-related proteins in these strains reveals the genetic basis of the conversion of alkanes to energy. The biosurfactants synthesized as secondary metabolites are also essential in crude oil degradation, in which emulsification of the crude oil could help the strains to utilize hydrocarbons more easily , . Furthermore, it is interesting that although the strain SK2, isolated from marine sediment, could utilize crude oil, proteins in SK2 belonging to cell motility COG categories are fewer than those in SL003B-26A1T and NG80-2, which were isolated from terrestrial oil-contaminated environments. The reason why cell motility is more important for SL003B-26A1T and NG80-2 may be that soil and oil reservoirs are much more compacted.
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