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The Light-Dependent and Light-Independent Reactions

In the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, the energy from light propels the electrons from a photosystem into a high-energy state.

"Lec 12 - Biology 1A - Photosynthesis - the light reaction"General Biology Lecture

Photosynthesis is the first stage of energy flow through an ecosystem. You and all other animals on earth rely on the energy that plants store for life. But animals aren’t the only organisms that burn energy. Plants burn energy as they grow, too. In both plants and animals, the process of — which releases stored energy for use — occurs in the mitochondria inside each cell.

Photosynthesis - perfect chemistry in Nature

In essence, the chloroplast uses light energy to make sugar by coordinating the two stages of photosynthesis.

The metabolic steps of the Calvin cycle are sometimes referred to as the dark reactions, or fight-independent reactions, because none of the steps requires light directly.

Photosynthesis is a process where by energy from light is harvested and used to drive synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. Photophosphorylation is a process where the light energy captured by the photosynthetic organisms is transformed into the phosphate bond energy of ATP. Components of photosystem I and II transfer the electrons from water to NADP. Second step of photosynthesis is called Calvin’s cycle and it is a dark reaction. There are two stages here, I and II. Stage I is carbon dioxide fixation and stage II is the regeneration phase. Photorespiration is the process wherein oxygen consumption occurs in illuminated temperature zone of plants under high oxygen and low carbon dioxide. C4 cycle is the pathway adopted by C4 plants to conserve the carbon dioxide released via photorespiration. It occurs in mesophyll cells.

In the last video we learned a little bit about photosynthesis

Our next step toward understanding photosynthesis is to look more closely at how the two stages work, beginning with the light reactions.

Photosynthetic bacteria and plant have an abundance of molecules that interact with visible light. The main one found in PS2 is chlorophyll a whose structure is shown below.

All of the sugar produced in the photosynthetic cells of plants and other organisms is derived from the initial chemical combining of carbon dioxide and water with sunlight.

Water is split in the process, and thus it is the light reactions of photosynthesis that give off 0, as a by-product.
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This tutorial introduces chemical compounds

Chloroplast structure
Chloroplast is a plant subcellular organelle where photosynthesis takes place. Outer membrane of chloroplast is permeable. Inner membrane encloses stroma. Thylakoid is flattened membrane surrounded vesicle. This is the place where light reaction occurs. In stroma, fluid surrounding the thylakoids is the place where the dark reaction occurs. Chlorophylls are the green pigments; they are present in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplast. They absorb deep blue and red light. Secondary light absorbing pigments are called accessory pigments. They are carotenoids and phycobilins. Photosystems are the light absorbing pigments of thylakoid membrane arranged in functional sets.

Oxygen discovery, atomic structure, and location information

Environmental scientists recognize that the fundamental source of energy for most life on earth is the sun. Through photosynthesis, plants capture the light and convert it into chemical potential energy. Plants then store the potential energy in the form of (biological matter that fuels nearly every animal on earth).

Glossary of Terms: P - Physical Geography

Light reaction and photophosphorylation
Photosystems are of two types: PS I P700, PS II P680. Components of photosystem I and II transfer the electrons from water to NADP. Light is absorbed by these photosystems and electrons are transferred from water to NADP. Photophosphorylation is a process where the light energy captured by the photosynthetic organisms is transformed into the phosphate bond energy of ATP. During the transfer of electrons, ATP is synthesized. Electron flow is cyclic. As a result oxygen is not released and ATP is formed as a result of proton gradient created by Cytochrome bf pump.

9(l) Primary Productivity of Plants - Physical geography

The of a is the amount of biomass produced through photosynthesis per unit area and time by plants, the primary producers. Primary productivity is usually expressed in units of energy (e.g., joules m day ) or in units of dry organic matter (e.g., kg m year ). Globally, primary production amounts to 243 billion metric tons of dry plant biomass per year. The total energy by plants in a community through photosynthesis is referred to as (). Because all the energy fixed by the plant is converted into sugar, it is theoretically possible to determine a plant's energy uptake by measuring the amount of sugar produced. A proportion of the energy of gross primary productivity is used by plants in a process called . Respiration provides a plant with the energy needed for various plant physiological and morphological activities. The general equation for respiration is:

Endothermic Reaction Examples - ThoughtCo

Dark reaction – Calvin cycle
Second step of photosynthesis is called Calvin’s cycle and it is a dark reaction. There are two stages here, I and II. In Stage I carbon dioxide is incorporated into 5 carbon ribulose bisphosphate. In stage II ribulose bisphosphate is the regenerated.

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