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Frustration–aggression hypothesis - Howling Pixel

The 'occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration and the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression.

Other psychologist emphasized frustration as a potent cause of why individuals are aggressive.

Neither the frustration alone or the cues alone are sufficient to set off aggression, but when combined however, they do." Berkowitz went on to say "unexpected failure at some task tends to create a more intense negative reaction then a failure that is expected".

Aggression: Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis | …

Once this readiness exists, cues in the environment, that are associated with aggression, will often lead a frustrated person to behave aggressively.

Dollard et al. (1939) proposed that if we experience frustration, this leads to aggression. The aggression is a cathartic release of the build-up of frustration. Dollard explains that if the individual is prevented from achieving a goal by some external factor, then this will lead to frustration which will always lead to aggression. The aggression cannot always be directed at the source of aggression, which may be abstract such as lack of money, or too powerful, as the risk of punishment is too high. Psychodynamic theory proposes we have ego defence mechanisms to protect ourselves. Two defence mechanisms that are used in the catharsis of aggression are:

The frustration-aggression hypothesis put forward by Dollard et al. (1939) is based on the psychodynamic explanation of catharsis. Freud believed the drive for aggression was innate, like the drive for food. He believed that the only way to reduce aggression is to engage in an activity which released it. We feel better because we have ‘got it off of our chest’.

Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis

No universally adopted definition of aggression exists, for the purpose of this discussion; the definition of Gross will be used.

A number of theoretical models (e.g. Gustafson, 1984) indicate that drinking can lead to more extreme responses to frustration, including aggressive responses. The 'frustration-aggression' theory, originally conceived by Dollard et al (1939) but later substantially refined by Berkowitz (1978) and others, states that frustration, caused by 'interference in goal-directed activity', does not automatically result in aggression but produces a 'readiness' for aggression which if 'triggered' can result in aggressive responses. The 'trigger' may be an insignificant element of behaviour – such as a casual joke, gesture or mild criticism – which would normally be overlooked, but to the frustrated individual may be enough to provoke an aggressive response. The alcohol-induced cognitive impairments identified above – narrowing of the perceptual field and reduced powers of reasoning – may increase the likelihood of a frustrated person focusing on this one small aspect of the situation, exaggerating its importance, and responding in an irrational, aggressive manner. Again, however, we must stress that this does not occur automatically or by any means universally, and that other mediating situational and cultural variables, outlined below, are necessary to produce this response.

The interference at the end of the prefrustration situation may have shattered the belief of the child in the security and stability of his situation. If the possibility of a superior power, such as that of the experimenter, interfering at any moment continued, it might not seem worth while to start a long-range plan. This should lead to a weakening of the connection between the reality and irreality levels and to a narrowing of the life space with respect to the extension of the level of reality (level of expectation) into the psychological future. It is possible to attribute regression in the frustration situation at least partly to the lack of security.

In order to better understand the media violence debate a clear definition of violence, or aggression, must be established.
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The Causes of Aggression :: The Frustration-Aggression …

So it can be seen, that there are views that point towards a pre-disposition towards aggression, while others would indicate either frustration, or a learned form of behavior as to the cause of aggression.

Frustration-aggression theory - WikiVisually

Both the instinctive and the frustration -aggression models suggest that it is something about the individual’s psychological make-up, which causes aggression, and individual aggressive impulses are triggered by personality dynamics, such as ego, need or frustration, and in which the aggressive drives/impulses build up, and must be dissipated in some way.

Psychology-frustration-agrression hypothesis? | Yahoo …

The frustration-aggression model looks beyond the individual, seeing the tension as being triggered by factors in the environment, which prevent the individual’s attempts to reach a goal.

Alcohol and Violence - Frustration-aggression theory

However, few researchers currently hold the view that "frustration always leads to aggression", frustration is simply one of many different causes of aggression (Baron/Byrne page 329) When you look at the frustration hypothesis, it seems that practically any incident of aggression can be ascribed to frustration of acquisitiveness or "assertiveness.

Alcohol and violence Frustration-aggression theory

Existing evidence points to the conclusion that whether frustration increases or fails to enhance aggression, depends on whether the frustration is intense and whether the aggression is seen as 'just' or 'illegitimate'.

What Is The Frustration Aggression Theory? | Gobog …

(Berstein et
al page 718) On the other hand, several experiments have reported that frustration sometimes may actually tend to reduce the level of aggression shown by the individual.

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