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The scientific method has four steps

In thisintroduction, we have emphasized that the scientific method distinguishesscience from other forms of explanation because of its requirement ofsystematic experimentation.

Common Mistakes in Applying the Scientific Method

Theprocess you might go through to solve this problem could involve scientificthinking, and the results might contradict your initial expectations.Like any good scientist, you may question the range of situations (outside ofscience) in which the scientific method may be applied.

Hypotheses, Models, Theories and Laws

Are there circumstances in which the Scientific Method is not applicable?

There are numerous examples of this, dating from the Greekphilosophers to the present day.Another common mistake is to ignore or rule out data which do not support thehypothesis.

The Natural Order hypothesis is based on research findings (Dulay & Burt, 1974; Fathman, 1975; Makino, 1980 cited in Krashen, 1987) which suggested that the acquisition of grammatical structures follows a 'natural order' which is predictable. For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. This order seemed to be independent of the learners' age, L1 background, conditions of exposure, and although the agreement between individual acquirers was not always 100% in the studies, there were statistically significant similarities that reinforced the existence of a Natural Order of language acquisition. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.

The scientific method has four steps1.

Sometimes, however, a scientist may have astrong belief that the hypothesis is true (or false), or feels internal orexternal pressure to get a specific result.

That is,when testing an hypothesis or a theory, the scientist may have a preference forone outcome or another, and it is important that this preference not bias theresults or their interpretation.

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Efficient Market Hypothesis - EMH - Investopedia

Common Mistakes in Applying the Scientific MethodAs stated earlier, the scientific method attempts to minimize theinfluence of the scientist's bias on the outcome of an experiment.

Investor Home - The Efficient Market Hypothesis

In that case, there may be apsychological tendency to find "something wrong", such as systematic effects,with data which do not support the scientist's expectations, while data whichdo agree with those expectations may not be checked as carefully.

The Scientific Method: Hypothesis to Theory

As it later turned out, Bettleheim’s book was one of the last gasps of the “refrigerator mother “ hypothesis. Although many other authors subsequently argued that is was valid to blame parents (especially the mother) for autism, it was a doomed cause. Although a few people, and even a few medical professionals, still blame autism on maternal lack of affection, the growing volume of data supporting a biological cause clearly refutes this. However, other potentially dangerous "blame-the-parent" notions have arisen. According to these, parents are responsible for their children’s autism in two ways:


The lesson isthat all data must be handled in the same way.Another common mistake arises from the failure to estimatequantitatively systematic errors (and all errors).

What Is a Scientific Hypothesis? | Definition of Hypothesis

The Input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how thelearner acquires a second language – how second language acquisition takes place. The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'.According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'. We can then define 'Comprehensible Input' as the target language that the learner would not be able to produce but can still understand. It goes beyond the choice of words and involves presentation of context, explanation, rewording of unclear parts, the use of visual cues and meaning negotiation. The meaning successfully conveyed constitutes the learning experience.

Avogadro's Law - Avogadro's theory - Avogadro's hypothesis

I have sometimes used the word theory where perhaps hypothesis or conjecture might have been better. This is just to try and use an everyday word rather than a technical one.

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