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female enforced monogamy examples: ..
The introduction of anisogamy has caused males and females to tend to have different optimal mating strategies. This is because males may increase their fitness by mating with many females whereas females are limited by their own fecundity. Females are therefore typically more likely to be selective in choosing mates. Monogamy is suggested to limit fitness differences as males and females will mate in pairs. This would seem to be non beneficial to males, but may not be in all cases. Several behaviors and ecological concerns may have led to the evolution of monogamy as a relevant mating strategy. Partner and resource availability, enforcement, mate assistance, and territory defense may be some of the most prevalent factors effecting animal behavior.
While some fitness consequences of enforced polyandry or monogamy have been examined when flies mate multiply, the consequences for female fitness when singly copulated remain unexplored.
Monogamy in animals - Wikipedia
With increased resource availability males may be offsetting the restriction of their fitness through several means. In instances of social monogamy males may offset any lowered fitness through extra pair coupling. Extra pair coupling refers to male and females mating with several mates, but only raising offspring with one mate. The male may not be related to all of the offspring of his main mate, but some offspring are being raised in other broods by other males and females thereby offsetting any limitation of monogamy. Males are cuckolds, but because they have other female sexual partners they cuckold other males and increase their own fitness. Males exhibit parental care habits in order to be an acceptable mate to the female. Any males which do not exhibit parental care would not be accepted as a sexual partner for socially monogamous females in an enforcement pattern.
Monogamous mating may also be caused simply by enforcement through tactics such as mate guarding. In these species the males will prevent other males from copulating with their chosen female or vice versa. Males will help to fend off other aggressive males, and keep their mate for themselves. This is not seen in all species such as some primates in which the female may be more dominant than the male and may not need help to avoid unwanted mating, the pair may still benefit from some form of mate assistance however and therefore monogamy may be enforced to ensure the assistance of males. Bi-parental care is not seen in all monogamous species however so this may not be the only cause of female enforcement.
Monogamy is defined as a pair bond between those of the same species
Social Monogamy refers to the cohabitation of males and females. The two individuals cooperate in search of resources such as food and shelter. With social monogamy there may not be an expected sexual fidelity between the males and the females. The existence of purely social monogamy is a polygamous social pair with extra pair coupling. Social monogamy has been shown to increase fitness in prairie voles. It has been shown that female prairie voles live longer when paired with males in a social monogamous relationship. This could be because of the shared energy expenditure by the males and females lower each individuals input. In largemouth bass females are sometimes seen to exhibit cuckold behavior by laying some of their eggs in another females nest, thus “stealing” fertilizations from other females. Sexual conflicts that have been proposed to arise from social monogamy include infidelity and parental investment. The proposed conflict is derived from the conflict- centric differential allocation hypothesis which states that there is a tradeoff between investment and attractiveness.
Genetic monogamy refers to a mating system in which fidelity of the bonding pair is exhibited. In some species genetic monogamy has been enforced. Female voles have shown no difference in fecundity with genetic monogamy, but it may be enforced by males in some instances. Mate guarding is a typical tactic in monogamous species. It is present in many animal species and can sometimes be expressed in lieu of parental care by males. This may be for many reasons including paternity assurance.
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International Socialist Review Issue 2, Fall 1997
We investigate the lifetime repro-ductive success and longevity of females evolving under enforced monogamy or polyandry when mating once with males from these selection regimes.
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