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Central Dogma and Protein Synthesis 1

Abstract:
Heterogeneous photo-catalysis is an advanced oxidation process (PAO), which has been the subject of numerous studies and applications, particularly using the commercial oxide of TiO2 (P25, Evonik). Zinc oxide (ZnO) has often been considered a valid alternative to TiO2 due to its good opto-electronic, catalytic and photochemical characteristics along with its low cost. In order to improve the photocatalytic performance of ZnO for practical applications, various types of synthetic approaches have been developed, including, among others, the hydrothermal / solvothermal growth method, sol-gel method, ultrasonic assisted method, deposition chemistry in vapor phase, etc. with the aim of preparing ZnO particles with different sizes and morphologies. However, all of these methods require relatively severe reaction conditions such as high temperature, sophisticated techniques, high purity of gases, adjustable gas flow, expensive raw materials, etc. Therefore, it is important to find a simple and cost-effective method for the synthesis of crystalline nano-particles of ZnO. For this reason, in the present work, the ZnO has been synthesized by three different procedures: conventional aqueous precipitation method, hydrothermal method (H) and microwave assisted method (MW). In all three processes, the same material is obtained, hydrocincite [Zn5(CO3) 2(OH)6], which evolves to crystalline ZnO after calcination thermal treatments. We investigated the effect of the calcination temperature, at the same time (2 h), on the optical, textural and structural properties. Photo-catalytic studies were performed using two selected substrates, Methyl Orange and Phenol, as toxic model substrates (one colorant and the other transparent). The catalysts prepared were characterized by several techniques: DRX, SBET, FE-SEM, TEM and UV-Vis (in diffuse reflectance mode).From the results of XRD, it has been possible to establish that a minimum difference between the relative intensities of exposed faces (I100 and I002) is a crucial factor to obtain good photocatalytic properties. This minimum difference is achieved, in our cases by thermal treatments of calcination at 400ºC, 2 h. When this temperature is chosen, there is no appreciable variation between the photocatalytic activities of the oxides of zinc obtained by the three processes, and there are small differences depending on the nature of the substrate chosen, which can be attributed to the textural differences between the oxides. In any case, the obtained zinc oxides show, for each substrate, photo-catalytic activities in the UV that are superior to those presented by the widely used commercial oxide TiO2 (P25) used as reference.

N. (2004) Protein synthesis and ribosome structure: translating the genome,



We do know that having multiple exons in a gene allows eukaryotes to make multiple functional proteins from one gene ("
alternative splicing
")
RNA
polypeptide
The Genetic Code:
The Ribosome
tRNA
The site of protein synthesis.

The only "non-membrane" bound organelle.

All cells have ribosomes.

Composed of two subunits.

Has three "sites":
A site
: "Aminoacyl"- where amino acids enter the ribosome
P site
: "peptidyl"- where the growing polypeptide is kept.
E site
: "exit"- where empty tRNA molecules leave.
Transfer RNA molecules.

Responsible for bringing amino acids to the ribosome.
Amino acids are added to tRNA molecules through the action of "
amino-acyl tRNA synthase
" enzymes.

A tRNA with the an amino acid attached is said to be "
charged
"
Triplet code: mRNA is read in units of three bases ("
codons
")

There are 64 possible codons (for 20 possible amino acids).

The code is redundant and unambiguous.

The code has "
start
" and "
stop
" punctuation.
pig with GFP from a jellyfish
tobacco plant with luciferase from a firefly
How translation happens:
1.

it directs the synthesis of the protein, ..

From DNA to proteins, one of life's core processes.The answer was provided at the beginning of the 1960s.

All humans produce energy through the Krebs cycle, but in the Autonomic Metabolic Types this process is overshadowed by the action of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), in collaboration with the endocrine system. Accordingly, the Autonomic types (Sympathetics and Parasympathetics) are not so dependent on the Krebs cycle as the Oxidative types for their sense of well-being. This accounts for a phenomenon commonly noted by practitioners of Metabolic Typing. Fast Oxidizers process glucose very rapidly. After ingesting the glucose challenge drink during the Metabolic Typing testing protocol, the blood sugar levels of a Fast Oxidizer will rapidly rise, then fall in a sharp curve. As the blood sugar crashes, so too does the individual's sense of energy and well-being. An Autonomic Sympathetic, however, can exhibit a similar or even identical blood sugar curve to the Fast Oxidizer, but the Sympathetic individual is generally unaffected when the blood sugar levels plummet; in fact, in many cases the sense of well-being will even increase. This phenomenon, which is at first quite baffling, is simply explained by the dominance principle. The metabolism of the Sympathetics is primarily driven by the activity of the autonomic nervous system, rather than by the oxidative system, so the dynamic energy of the sympathetic branch of the nervous system carries them through a blood sugar crash that would sink a Fast Oxidizer.

Abstract:
Heterogeneous photo-catalysis is an advanced oxidation process (PAO), which has been the subject of numerous studies and applications, particularly using the commercial oxide of TiO2 (P25, Evonik). Zinc oxide (ZnO) has often been considered a valid alternative to TiO2 due to its good opto-electronic, catalytic and photochemical characteristics along with its low cost. In order to improve the photocatalytic performance of ZnO for practical applications, various types of synthetic approaches have been developed, including, among others, the hydrothermal / solvothermal growth method, sol-gel method, ultrasonic assisted method, deposition chemistry in vapor phase, etc. with the aim of preparing ZnO particles with different sizes and morphologies. However, all of these methods require relatively severe reaction conditions such as high temperature, sophisticated techniques, high purity of gases, adjustable gas flow, expensive raw materials, etc. Therefore, it is important to find a simple and cost-effective method for the synthesis of crystalline nano-particles of ZnO. For this reason, in the present work, the ZnO has been synthesized by three different procedures: conventional aqueous precipitation method, hydrothermal method (H) and microwave assisted method (MW). In all three processes, the same material is obtained, hydrocincite [Zn5(CO3) 2(OH)6], which evolves to crystalline ZnO after calcination thermal treatments. We investigated the effect of the calcination temperature, at the same time (2 h), on the optical, textural and structural properties. Photo-catalytic studies were performed using two selected substrates, Methyl Orange and Phenol, as toxic model substrates (one colorant and the other transparent). The catalysts prepared were characterized by several techniques: DRX, SBET, FE-SEM, TEM and UV-Vis (in diffuse reflectance mode).From the results of XRD, it has been possible to establish that a minimum difference between the relative intensities of exposed faces (I100 and I002) is a crucial factor to obtain good photocatalytic properties. This minimum difference is achieved, in our cases by thermal treatments of calcination at 400ºC, 2 h. When this temperature is chosen, there is no appreciable variation between the photocatalytic activities of the oxides of zinc obtained by the three processes, and there are small differences depending on the nature of the substrate chosen, which can be attributed to the textural differences between the oxides. In any case, the obtained zinc oxides show, for each substrate, photo-catalytic activities in the UV that are superior to those presented by the widely used commercial oxide TiO2 (P25) used as reference.

Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma 10:58

Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis

Eating for your metabolic type is not quite so easy to use - it requires a series of tests to determine type - but the consistent results make it worth the extra trouble. In order to efficiently determine each patient's metabolic type, Bill Wolcott and I have developed a series of tests which can be completed in one office visit. Before the visit, the client is asked to complete a questionnaire which includes both physical and psychological characteristics which are linked to metabolic type. In the office, we take physiological readings, including blood glucose level, pulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and several others. In addition, we ask for the patient's subjective experience of well being, energy level, hunger, etc. We then give the patient a high glucose drink. We do this in order to challenge the system, and measure its reactions. We repeat the physiological tests and the subjective questions at specific intervals over the course of the visit. The entire process takes about two hours, and the results, combined with our extensive research data, allow us to determine each patient's metabolic type, with 80% accuracy on the first visit. Further testing, including a protein challenge I have recently developed, helps us to classify the 20% of patients who yield ambiguous results from the standard series of tests (see Additional Information at the end of the article: 3).

Biography:
Cecile Reynaud has her expertise in the synthesis and chemical physics of nanomaterials. Her work has mainly dealt with silicon nanocrystals and aligned carbon nanotubes. She was for 15 years at the head of the Laboratory of Nanometric Assemblies (LEDNA) in the fundamental research division of Saclay CEA center. The LEDNA group follows the "bottom-up" approach of nanosciences. It develops its own synthesis methods and obtains nanostructured materials with well-controlled characteristics. The applications are relevant for energy, health, environmental issues and the development of composite materials. The group also develop the up-scaling of its processes to allow their industrial transfer.

RE: Can someone explain what the central dogma of protein synthesis is
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the protein synthesis process can also be ..

Eating for your metabolic type is not quite so easy to use - it requires a series of tests to determine type - but the consistent results make it worth the extra trouble. In order to efficiently determine each patient's metabolic type, Bill Wolcott and I have developed a series of tests which can be completed in one office visit. Before the visit, the client is asked to complete a questionnaire which includes both physical and psychological characteristics which are linked to metabolic type. In the office, we take physiological readings, including blood glucose level, pulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and several others. In addition, we ask for the patient's subjective experience of well being, energy level, hunger, etc. We then give the patient a high glucose drink. We do this in order to challenge the system, and measure its reactions. We repeat the physiological tests and the subjective questions at specific intervals over the course of the visit. The entire process takes about two hours, and the results, combined with our extensive research data, allow us to determine each patient's metabolic type, with 80% accuracy on the first visit. Further testing, including a protein challenge I have recently developed, helps us to classify the 20% of patients who yield ambiguous results from the standard series of tests (see Additional Information at the end of the article).

Solution for question: Give the central dogma of protein synthesis

The importance of determining Oxidative or Autonomic dominance is that most foods and supplements are processed differently in each system, producing a different net pH effect at the level of the blood. For example, fruits and vegetables are generally considered to be alkaline forming, and so indeed most of them are within the Autonomic system; but within the Oxidative system they have precisely the opposite effect, and are generally acid forming. Conversely, protein foods are generally considered to be acid forming, and while most of them are indeed acid forming within the Autonomic system, they are actually alkaline forming within the Oxidative system. Because one member of each dominance system (the Fast Oxidizer and the Sympathetic) already tends towards a relatively acid blood pH, feeding them foods that further acidify their blood would be counterproductive. Conversely, feeding alkaline forming foods to the two types that already run on the alkaline side (the Slow Oxidizer and the Parasympathetic) would also be counterproductive. But, given that foods that are acid forming in one dominance system are alkaline forming in the other system, we end up with two types with opposite blood pHs — one from each dominance system — sharing the same nutritional requirements.

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