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Recent DNA studies of several populations suggest that modern humans:
However, there is no explanation so far as to how this recombination could be occurring, and the possibility that other phenomena could be causing this effect has not yet been disproved.
Evidence from DNA studies generally supports a recent African origin but these conclusions have been criticised for a lack of statistical support. One possible reason for this is because these studies have focussed mainly on the polymorphisms in a small section of the mitochondrial genome called the D-loop, which comprises around 7% of the mitochondrial genome. The reason for this section’s popularity lies in its particularly high mutation rate, meaning that scientists can analyse this relatively short sequence and still resolve differences between closely related sequences. Unfortunately, it is now becoming increasingly clear that this very high mutation rate is actually obscuring the informative information. Three main problems with data from the D-loop section have been identified:
Eden, Adam, and the birth of writing
The widespread use and misuse of antibiotics has resulted in increased microbial resistance to antibiotics in clinical use, to the point that the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been described as a "superbug" because of the threat it poses to health and its relative invulnerability to existing drugs. Response strategies typically include the use of different, stronger antibiotics; however, new strains of MRSA have recently emerged that are resistant even to these drugs.
Second, let us examine the assumption that the mutations affecting mtDNA did indeed occur at constant rates. The researchers who made the initial announcement about Eve not only gave a location for this amazing female, but also proposed the time period during which she was supposed to have lived. However, in order for the mtDNA theory to be of any practical use, those scientists had to assume that random mutations in the DNA occurred at documented, steady rates. For example, if they speculated that there was one mutation every 1,000 years, and they found a difference of 10 mutations between us and our ancient hypothetical ancestor, they then could infer that that ancestor lived 10,000 years ago. Scientists—who used this concept to determine the age of mitochondrial Eve—refer to this proposed mutation rate as a “molecular clock.” One group of researchers described the process as follows:
The remaining one percent, however, accounts for people's diversity.
He cautioned, however, that the research had so far found only an association that appears to be more than chance, and that more work was needed to confirm a causal effect.
“This does not mean that people with one set of genes cannot speak the other type of language, or that you have to be any smarter to learn one of these groups of languages rather than another,” Robert Ladd, who led the research, said. “What we have found, though, suggests that these genes might have a very small effect on individuals, and a larger effect on the populations in which they live. As the language is passed on culturally, it would then be more likely to develop along one path than the other.”
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Ken Miller (August, 1999). "The Peppered Moth". Retrieved 2011-04-13.
In an article reviewing mtDNA research, Strauss (1999a) reports that mtDNA mutation rates differ in some groups of animals, and can even vary dramatically in single lineages.
Evolution: Out of Africa and the Eve Hypothesis
If the mitochondrial analysis is correct, then because mitochondrial Eve represents the root of the mitochondrial family tree, she must have predated the exodus and lived in Africa.
The Mitochondrial Eve: Have Scientists Found the …
In the past, critics of the Out of Africa model have argued that the mitochondrial evidence can be explained as well or better by trees that associate Eve most closely to the indigenous peoples of other continents.
Introduction of the mitochondrial Eve ..
Family trees (or "phylogenies")constructed on the basis of mitochondrial DNA comparisons show that the living humans whose mitochondrial lineages branched earliest from the tree are indigenous Africans, whereas the lineages of indigenous peoples on other continents all branch off from African lines.
Mitochondrial Eve Hypothesis - What is it?
In The Urantia Book’s version of human history, the two most significant genetic developments are the mutation that started humanity and the genetic upgrade contributed by Adam and Eve. It was published decades before advances in the study of genes made it possible to do this type of research. The subjective appreciation for how closely the research results align with The Urantia Book’s dates are for the reader to evaluate.
What is Mitochondrial Eve Hypothesis
Microcephalin haplogroup D is generally found in high percentages in Eurasia. See Figure 1. This supports the assertions made in The Urantia Book regarding the migration of Adam and Eve’s descendants. The authors of the book recount:
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