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Look up the etymology of the words.
There are many words of the same kind which
have obtained admittance twice into the language of
England, once in their pure Saxon form, and again
in their Roman disguise. Words beginning in Italian
with , , , are almost invariably of German
origin. A few words are mentioned, indeed, in
which a Latin seems to have been changed into .
But as, according to general usage, Latin remains
in the Romance dialects, it would be more correct to
admit that in these exceptional cases Latin words had
first been adopted and corrupted by the Germans, and
then, as beginning with German , and not with
Latin v, been readopted by the Roman provincials.
Where the spelling is the same, as it is, for instance,
in , to praise, and , to let, attempts have not
been wanting to show that the second meaning was
derived from the first; that , for instance, was
used in the sense of letting, because you have to praise
your lodgings before you can let them. Thus ,
fine, was connected with , the end, because the end
occasionally expresses the smallest point of an object.
Now, in the first instance, both , to let, and ,
to praise, are derived from Latin; the one is ,
the other . In the other instance we have to
mark a second cause of verbal confusion in French.
Two words, the one derived from a Latin, the other
from a German source, met on the neutral soil of
France, and, after being divested of their national
dress, ceased to be distinguishable from each other.
The same applies to the French . In one sense
it is the Latin , to cause; in another, the Old
German , the Modern German . As French
borrows not only from German, but also from Greek,
we need not be surprised if in , page, we meet
with the Greek , a small boy, whereas
is the Latin , a page or leaf.
Develop and question the metaphoric, spatial sense of the words.
These exceptional cases, however, are very few, and
somewhat doubtful. It was natural, no doubt, to
derive the Italian , a ford, the French , from
Latin . Yet the initial points first to
German, and there we find in Old High-German ,
a ford, , to wade. The Spanish may be
derived from Latin, or it may owe its origin to a
confusion in the minds of those who were speaking
and thinking in two languages, a Teutonic and a
Romanic. The Latin and the German
may claim a distant relationship.
Thus the German word was common to the
High and the Low branches of the German language;
it was a word as familiar to the Frank invaders of Gaul
as it was to the Saxon invaders of England. In the
mouths of the Roman citizens of France, however, the
German initial had been replaced by the more guttural
sound of . had become , and in this
new form it succeeded in gaining a place side by side
with its ancient prototype, . By the same process
, the Old French , was adopted in English,
though it was the same word originally as the Anglo-Saxon
, which we have in . The changes
have been more violent through which the Old High-German
, a pledge (Gothic ), became changed
into the mediæval Latin or Italian
, and French . Nevertheless, we must recognise
in the verbs or Norman
varieties of the same word which is preserved in the
pure Saxon forms and , literally to bind
or to pledge.
Some of the words were taken and given a different meaning, as .
As of this writing, hurricane Harvey has devastated much of the Texas Gulf Coast. (Here in College Station, Texas, we’ve avoided the worst of it, although it would be an understatement to say there has been a lot of rain.) But where does the word come from? It turns out it’s a rather straightforward borrowing.
PROMPT: Choose a word that you find to be problematic. For example, the word ?nigger.? Define the word in terms of its actual definition (you may look up the definition and etymology of the word online or in a dictionary). Then, throughout your essay, expand that definition and give examples of how the word is used in other ways (basically do what Naylor does in her essay in the paragraphs where she defines the different meanings of ?nigger? based on context and speaker). You also want to discuss how and why those differences arise in regards to how the word is used. Discuss the connotation of the word, if and how the word is used politically, what social significance it has, if it?s morally correct to use the word, etc. Who/ What gives power to the word? Who uses it? Who does it target? The word you use can be in relation to a group of people, a nation, a religion, an ethnicity, or a social/ political movement. You are NOT allowed to use the words ?nigger?, ?colored?, or ?bitch.? If you?d like to do some research online about the word you choose, you may do so, but I do not want a research paper? I want YOUR ideas. Make sure not to plagiarize ideas or words from the sites you use (I will show you how to cite correctly on Tuesday).
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On the Principles of Etymology.
The Latin has had another very strange
offspring — the French , in the sense of palate.
Before the establishment of phonetic rules to regulate
the possible changes of letters in various languages, no
one could have doubted that , the palate, was
the Latin . However, could never
have become , but only . How
was used instead is difficult to explain. It was a
word of frequent use, and with it was associated the
idea of vault (palais vouti). Now was a very
appropriate name for the palate. In Italian the palate
is called ; in Greek , .
Ennius, again, speaks of the vault of heaven
as . There was evidently a similarity
of conception between palate and vault, and vault and
palace; and hence was most likely in vulgar
Latin used by mistake for , and thus carried on
Can you categorize these words in a coherent order?
I shall trace the career of a few of those early
Eoman words, in order to show how words may
change, and how they adapt themselves to the changing
wants of each generation. I begin with the word
, A palace now is the abode of a royal family.
But if we look at the history of the name we are soon
carried back to the shepherds of the Seven Hills.
There, on the Tiber, one of the seven hills was called
the , and the hill was called Palatinus,
from , a pastoral deity, whose festival was celebrated
every year on the 21 st of April as the birthday
of Rome. It was to commemorate the day on
which Romulus, the wolf-child, was supposed to have
drawn the first furrow on the foot of that hill, and
thus to have laid the foundation of the most ancient
part of Rome, the . On this hill, the
Collis Palatinus, stood in later times the houses of
Cicero and of his neighbour and enemy Catiline.
Augustus built his mansion on the same hill, and his
example was followed by Tiberius and Nero. Under
Nero, all private houses had to be pulled down on the
Collis Palatinus, in order to make room for the emperor's
residence, the , as it was called,
the Golden House. This house of Nero's was henceforth
called the , and it became the type of
all the palaces of the kings and emperors of Europe.
The depression of the voice in pronouncing the syllables of a word.
Another modern word, the English , the
French , the Italian , carries us back to the
same locality and to the same distant past. It was on
the hills of Latium that or was first used
in the sense of a , an , a .
The , or divisions of the Roman army, were
called by the same name; so many soldiers constituting
a pen or a court. It is generally supposed that
is restricted in Latin to the sense of cattle-yard, and
that is always used in a military sense. This
is not so. Ovid (Fasti, iv. 704) used in the
sense of cattle-yard:
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