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Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation

In conclusion, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness and SSC during Morus fruit development and harvest, concluding that these fruit are probably climacteric. Analysis of Morus genome data characterized 11 elements associated with ethylene perception, and the genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction showed different expression patterns during Morus fruit development as well as different responses to ethylene and 1-MCP after harvest. The present study provides preliminary insights into the roles of ethylene and the expression profiles of ethylene-related genes during Morus fruit development, laying a foundation for a further understanding of the mechanisms of Morus fruit development and ripening. It may be possible to control Morus fruit ripening and artificially prolong its shelf life by manipulating ethylene production using transgenic approaches.

Such methylation reactions play major roles in biosynthesis, regulation, and detoxification.

We investigated chilling-induced changes in ethylene levels in Arabidopsis to find plants with distinct patterns of ethylene production in the cold-related biosynthetic pathway. The sensitive mutants identified here includedchs1-2,chs4-2, andchs6-2. Among these, plants of thechs4-2 mutant produced more ethylene than did the wild type after both were transferred from 4°C or 10°C to 22°C. This mutant also showed less freezing tolerance and more electrolyte leakage than the wild-type plants. Our results suggest a relationship between ethylene biosynthesis and chilling sensitivity in the mutant To determine which of the enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis were induced by chilling, we tested the activities of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase in both mutant and wild-type plants, and found greater activity by ACC synthase as well as a higher ACC content in the mutants after all the plants were transferred from 10°C to 22°C. However, ACC oxidase activity did not differ between mutant and wild-type plants in response to chilling treatment Therefore, we conclude thatchs4-2 mutants produce more ethylene than do other mutants or the wild type during their recovery from chilling conditions. Furthermore, we believe that ACC synthase is the key enzyme involved in this response.

QIAGEN - GeneGlobe Pathways - Ethylene Biosynthesis …

Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1–methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening.

In climacteric fruit, ethylene is necessary for the initiation of fruit ripening and senescence because it drives the majority of the ripening processes, such as fruit softening and cell wall disassembly [–]. The effects of ethylene in fruit mainly depend on its biosynthesis and signal transduction during fruit development.

Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher plants.

To investigate the response of fruit to exogenous ethylene and 1-MCP, the batch 2 fruits at 34 DAF were used. It is noteworthy to indicate that the days of growth required for fruit ripening varied between batches. The batch 2 fruit used here were at early ripening stage as revealed by SSC, ethylene production as well as fruit firmness (). Clearly, the production of ethylene decreased after harvest, and this decline was accelerated by 1-MCP (). Besides, slightly higher firmness and lower SSC were maintained in 1-MCP treated fruit ().

Morus fruit is valued worldwide for its rich nutrient contents and unique flavor. However, the short maturity stages and shelf-life of Morus complicates efforts to popularize the fruit. The control of ethylene production may delay the ripening of Morus fruit and prolong its shelf life. However, no previous work has determined the respiratory type of Morus fruit, which is vital for establishing the mechanisms controlled by ethylene in Morus fruit development and ripening. In this study, ethylene production, firmness, and SSC were measured during the development of Morus fruit. These factors were relatively constant before 26 DAF but exhibited remarkable changes after this point. Ethylene production and SSC increased rapidly at 26 DAF, while fruit firmness decreased (). Our previous study suggested that MaACO2 and MaACS3 showed rapid increases in expression throughout fruit development and were upregulated by ethephon in the fruit at 20 DAF, which may be attributed to the production of ethylene during the fruit transitional period []. Therefore, fruit at 26 DAF may represent the transition stage from system I ethylene production to system II ethylene production, and the respiration rate during fruit development also supports this suggestion (). In addition, ethylene production, fruit firmness, and SSC responded to ethylene and 1-MCP in the fruit harvested at 34 DAF. 1-MCP acted as a negative factor by retarding fruit softening, while ethylene accelerated fruit maturation (). However, unlike typical climacteric fruits, exogenous ethylene slightly decreased, rather than stimulated, endogenous ethylene production as well as temporarily inhibited expression of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 in Morus fruit after harvest. Why this occurred remains unclear and more studies are needed in the future.

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Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher plants ..

Morus fruit at 34 DAF were harvested for treatment, and the production of ethylene decreased during storage in both treated and untreated fruit. MaACO1 and MaACS3 expression increased after harvest, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased. The transcript levels of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, while that of MaACS1 upregulated (). These results are similar to those reported in fig fruit (Ficus carica L.). In the fig fruit harvested at the post-climacteric stage, which had higher ethylene contents, ethylene production fell during storage and was inhibited by propylene; 1-MCP inhibited the accumulation of Fc-ACS1, Fc-ACS3, and Fc-ACO1 transcripts, but induced the accumulation of Fc-ACS2 transcripts. Propylene induced the accumulation of Fc-ACS1, Fc-ACS3, and Fc-ACO1 transcripts, but inhibited Fc-ACS2 expression in the propylene treated fruit []. Additionally, as both fig and Morus fruits are collective, their mechanisms of ethylene biosynthesis and fruit maturation may differ from those of other fruits.

Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher ..

RTE1 is a membrane protein located at the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that acts as a cofactor coordinated with ETR protein to negatively regulate the plant response to ethylene through a conformational effect on the ethylene-binding domain [–]. We are the first to report the expression pattern of the RTE gene during fruit development and maturation. MaRTE had relatively lower transcript abundance early in fruit development and higher abundance after 14 DAF (), which was similar to the expression patterns of MaETRs. We hypothesized that MaRTE regulates Morus fruit maturation in cooperation with MaETR2, MaERS and MaEIN4. MaCTR1 expression was higher in ripe fruits, as has been reported in plum and pear [–], and showed a relatively similar pattern to that of MaRTE. The transcript abundance of MaRTE, unlike those of the MaETR genes, increased gradually after harvest, while that of MaCTR1 decreased after harvest. However, MaRTE and MaCTR1 expression levels were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP (Figs. and ).

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