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Estrogen biosynthesis - Pathway maps
genotoxic) properties of synthetic hormones were differentiated by measuring the rates of catechol estrogen and methyl ester formation by a weak carcinogen, 17a-ethinylestradiol, and by a strong hormonal carcinogen, moxestrol.
Cholesterol, obtained primarily from circulating low-density lipoprotein, serves as the precursor for steroid biosynthesis, although steroidogenic cells are capable of local cholesterol synthesis de novo.
Steroid hormone synthesis pathway Human ovary diagram
The reported results indicate that the DNA synthesis stimulation by β-estradiol requires the estrogen receptor and utilises one or more activated pathways in dependence on the cell equipment.",}
McLean Estradiol-17ß Explanation Biological data Absorption, distribution, and elimination Biotransformation Hydroxylation Conjugation Biochemical parameters Synthesis Mechanism of action Toxicological studies Acute toxicity Short-term studies of toxicity Long-term studies of toxicity and carcinogenicity Genotoxicity Reproductive toxicity Special studies on mechanism of action Observations in humans Therapeutic use Estradiol-related genetic markers of carcinogenicity Progesterone Explanation Biological data Absorption, distribution, and excretion Biotransformation Biochemical parameters Synthesis Mechamism of action Toxicological studies Acute toxicity Short-term studies of toxicity Long-term studies of toxicity and carcinogencity Genotoxicity Reproductive toxicity Observations in humans Testosterone Explanation Biological data Absorption, distribution, and elimination Biotransformation Biochemical parameters Synthesis Mechamism of action Toxicological studies Acute toxicity Short-term studies of toxicity Long-term studies of toxicity and carcinogenicity Genotoxicity Reproductive toxicity Observations in humans Epidemiological studies of women exposed to postmenopausal estrogen therapy and hormonal contraceptives Methods Postmenopausal oestrogen therapy Exposure Human carcinogenicity Breast cancer Endometrial cancer Cervical cancer Ovarian cancer Cancers of the liver and biliary tract Colorectal cancer Cutaneous malignant melanoma Thyroid cancer Summary and conclusions Cardiovascular disease Osteoporosis Overall mortality Hormonal contraceptives Exposure Human carcinogenicity Breast cancer Endometrial cancer Cervical cancer Ovarian cancer Cancers of the liver and biliary tract Colorectal cancer Cutaneous malignant melanoma Thyroid cancer Summary and conclusions Cardiovascular disease Acute myocardial infarct Stroke Venous thromboembolism Overall mortality Meat intake and cancer risk Comments and evaluation Estradiol-17ß Progesterone Testosterone References The purpose of this monograph is to provide a review and summary of the scientific information relative to a toxicological assessment of the safety of three endogenous hormones, estradiol-17ß, progesterone, and testosterone, with emphasis on information published since the review of the Committee at its thirty-second meeting (Annex 1, reference 80).
Estradiol Mechanism - News Medical
Since a possible association with markers of androgen metabolism (androstanediol glucuronide and DHT) has been observed in some studies, a complex, androgen-dependent, multi-gene model involving both androgen biosynthesis and metabolic pathways has been suggested to be critical for susceptibility to prostatic cancer (Ross et al., 1998).
Cholesterol obtained primarily from circulating low-density lipoprotein serves as the precursor for steroid biosynthesis, although steroidogenic cells are capable of local de novo cholesterol synthesis.
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30/07/2014 · Estradiol Mechanism
MUC5AC mRNA expression has been shown to be regulated by a variety of transcription factors including Forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2), (NFB), activating protein 1 (AP1), specificity protein (SP1) and cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) protein . In this study, we used an in vitro model of the human airway epithelium and showed that nuclear factor of activated T-cell c1 (NFATc1) is a novel regulator of estradiol-enhanced mucus synthesis.
The biosynthesis of estrogen is initiated by the synthesis of ..
The two main competing, irreversible pathways for estradiol hydroxylation are 2-or 4-hydroxylation and 16 alpha-hydroxylation (Michnovicz et al., 1989), which have been implicated in both the pathophysiology and the protective characteristics of estrogens.
Estradiol; Names; Pronunciation / ..
In most chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway (e.g, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis), female patients generally have more symptoms, worse quality of life and poorer prognosis than male patients , . One pathological link that is common to these conditions is mucus hypersecretion with plugging of airways . Mucins are large, oligomeric, O-linked glycoprotein with high molecular weight (2–40 MDa) and size (0.5–10 µm) . As the predominant mucins in the human airway, MUC5AC is produced mostly by goblet cells, while MUC5B is produced mainly in submucosal glands , . MUC5AC is thought to be an acute phase product that responds rapidly to direct contact with environmental insults, whereas MUC5B may be involved in the chronic inflammatory response to infections . Mucin expression has been shown to be regulated by a variety of inflammatory mediators including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) , tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α , interleukin (IL)-1 , IL-17 , IL-13 β neutrophil elastase , and growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) , and environmental insults including cigarette smoke and bacteria . Even in genetically determined diseases such as cystic fibrosis, in which abnormal mucus secretion is a prominent feature of disease, lung function is the lowest at ovulation when estrogen levels are elevated , raising the possibility that estrogens may play an active role in this condition. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta exist in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells with ER-β in predominance . However, little is known whether estradiol plays any role in the regulation of mucus in the airways.
The Mechanism of Ovulation | GLOWM
The reported results indicate that the DNA synthesis stimulation by β-estradiol requires the estrogen receptor and utilises one or more activated pathways in dependence on the cell equipment.AB - The role exerted by protein kinase C (PKC) on estrogen-induced DNA synthesis has been investigated in hepatic and mammary gland cells, HepG2 and MCF7.
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