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Enzyme action in glycoprotein synthesis | SpringerLink

Oursynthetic strategyemphasizes a combination of chemical and enzymatic methods, withparticular focus on the use of enzymes for stereocontrolled processes.

Enzyme action in glycoprotein synthesis

Moreover, our study clarified the dominant carbohydrate epitope of Em2 antigen.AB - Stereocontrolled syntheses of biotin-labeled oligosaccharide portions with a Galβ1-3GalNAc core of the Em2 glycoprotein antigen obtained from the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis have been accomplished.

techniques for homogeneous glycoprotein synthesis are direly ..

Enzyme Development for Organic Synthesis

Matrix vesicles are extracellular organelles produced with distinctive phospholipid composition and enzyme activity. They are produced by cells which typically calcify their extracellular matrix and their characteristics are cell-maturation dependent. Regulation of matrix vesicle structure and function occurs at the genomic and non-genomic levels. By following alkaline phosphatase gene transcription, protein concentration, and enzyme specific activity, we have shown that steroid hormones and growth factors exhibit a regulatory influence over gene transcription, protein synthesis, and matrix vesicle activity. Matrix vesicles respond to peptide hormones, other matrix proteins, like alpha2-HS-glycoprotein, and autocoid mediators as well. Matrix vesicle metabolism can be directly affected by vitamin D metabolites, even in the absence of cells. The results indicate that 1,25-(OH)2D3 (1,25D) or 24,25-(OH)2D3 (24,25D) produced by the cells in culture can modulate matrix vesicle activity, and suggest that calcifying cells can modulate events in the matrix via autocrine/paracrine stimulation or inhibition of the matrix vesicles. 1,25D and 24,25D regulate matrix vesicle phospholipase A2 activity, fatty acid turnover, arachidonic acid release, PGE2 production and membrane fluidity, which act on the matrix vesicle to alter enzyme activity. Since vitamin D metabolite production is sensitive to both hormones and growth factors, there is potential for fine tuning matrix vesicle behavior.

The recent discovery of efflux transporters in the gut has revolutionized our understanding of the absorption and bioavailability of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics in humans. Despite the celebrity of efflux transporters in the areas of pharmacology and medicine, their significance is only beginning to be realized in the area of plant-herbivore interactions. This review integrates reports on the importance of gut efflux transporters to diet selection by herbivores. The diets of herbivores are laden with toxic plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) that until recently were thought to be processed almost exclusively by detoxification enzymes in the liver. We describe how efflux transporters in the gut may play a critical role in regulating the absorption of PSMs in herbivores and dictating diet selection. Recent studies suggest that the role of efflux transporters in mediating diet selection in herbivores may be as critical as detoxification enzymes. In addition to diet selection, gut efflux transporters have implications for other aspects of plant-animal interactions. They may be significant components of the evolutionary arms race that influences chemical diversity in plants. Furthermore, in agricultural systems, gut efflux transporters may play an important role in the effectiveness of pesticides. This synthesis paper introduces a new direction in plant-herbivore interactions by providing a complementary mechanism, regulated absorption, to detoxification that may define tolerance to PSMs by herbivores.

Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of a Phosphorylated Glycoprotein

For total glycoprotein synthesis, ..

Cloning and overexpressionof these enzymes and alteration of their substrate specificity are underway as part of our goals to develop new chemical-enzymatic strategies forpractical synthesis of sugar-related substances.

Site-directed mutagenesis of proteases, intein-mediated transpeptidation and sugar-assisted ligation forcondensation of glycopeptide segments and sugar -assisted glycopeptide ligation have been developed and used in the synthesis ofhomogeneous glycoproteins.

Oct 20, 2015 · Synthesis of glycoprotein - Duration: ..
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that dextran and the enzymes involved in its synthesis, ..

Enzyme Development for Organic SynthesisOur programs in this area include the development of novel substrates andthe exploitation of native and modified enzymes for organic synthesis.

Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

Gallstones are categorized as cholesterol, mixed, black pigment, or brown pigment stones (2). Cholesterol gallstones are the main type of gallstones and contain cholesterol as the major chemical constituent. Mixed cholesterol gallstones are composed of more than 50% cholesterol (2). Cholesterol and mixed gallstones are formed from biliary sludge, which stays for a long time in the gallbladder lumen. Biliary sludge consists of calcium bilirubinate granules, cholesterol monohydrate crystals, and biliary polymerized glycoprotein mucin (2-8). The dynamics of the transformation of biliary sludge into cholesterol stones has been shown as follows: diffused biliary sludge → surface biliary sludge → precipitating biliary sludge → a cholesterol gallstone without acoustic shadow → a cholesterol gallstone with acoustic shadow (9). The time of formation of cholesterol stones depends on the intensity of the precipitation processes of cholesterol monohydrate crystals in biliary sludge, and equals 3 to 36 months (2). Transformation proportion varies from 5 to 50% depending on the cause (2).

Glycoprotein - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, …

We have developed severalchemoenzymatic strategies for the synthesis of glycoproteins in order tostudy the role carbohydrates play in glycoprotein structure and function.

Enzyme Explorer - Peroxidase Enzymes | Sigma-Aldrich

N2 - The recent discovery of efflux transporters in the gut has revolutionized our understanding of the absorption and bioavailability of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics in humans. Despite the celebrity of efflux transporters in the areas of pharmacology and medicine, their significance is only beginning to be realized in the area of plant-herbivore interactions. This review integrates reports on the importance of gut efflux transporters to diet selection by herbivores. The diets of herbivores are laden with toxic plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) that until recently were thought to be processed almost exclusively by detoxification enzymes in the liver. We describe how efflux transporters in the gut may play a critical role in regulating the absorption of PSMs in herbivores and dictating diet selection. Recent studies suggest that the role of efflux transporters in mediating diet selection in herbivores may be as critical as detoxification enzymes. In addition to diet selection, gut efflux transporters have implications for other aspects of plant-animal interactions. They may be significant components of the evolutionary arms race that influences chemical diversity in plants. Furthermore, in agricultural systems, gut efflux transporters may play an important role in the effectiveness of pesticides. This synthesis paper introduces a new direction in plant-herbivore interactions by providing a complementary mechanism, regulated absorption, to detoxification that may define tolerance to PSMs by herbivores.

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