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Virulence factors of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

Although the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) synthetic pathway of Escherichia coli is the prototype of such pathways, several unresolved issues have accumulated over the years. The key players are the fabA and fabB genes. Earlier studies of fabA transcription showed that the gene was transcribed from two promoters, with one being positively regulated by the FadR protein. The other weaker promoter (which could not be mapped with the technology then available) was considered constitutive because its function was independent of FadR. However, the FabR negative regulator was recently shown to represses fabA transcription. We report that the weak promoter overlaps the FadR-dependent promoter and is regulated by FabR. This promoter is strictly conserved in all E. coli and Salmonella enterica genomes sequenced to date and is thought to provide insurance against inappropriate regulation of fabA transcription by exogenous saturated fatty acids. Also, the fabAup promoter, a mutant promoter previously isolated by selection for increased FabA activity, was shown to be a promoter created de novo by a four-base deletion within the gene located immediately upstream of fabA. Demonstration of the key UFA synthetic reaction catalyzed by FabB has been elusive, although it was known to catalyze an elongation reaction. Strains lacking FabB are UFA auxotrophs indicating that the enzyme catalyzes an essential step in UFA synthesis. Using thioesterases specific for hydrolysis of short chain acyl-ACPs, the intermediates of the UFA synthetic pathway have been followed in vivo for the first time. These experiments showed that a fabB mutant strain accumulated less cis-5-dodecenoic acid than the parental wild-type strain. These data indicate that the key reaction in UFA synthesis catalyzed by FabB is elongation of the cis-3-decenoyl-ACP produced by FabA.

Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli

N2 - A specific γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) transport system in E. coli K-12 cells with a K(m) of 12μM and a V(max) of 278 nmol/ml of intracellular water per min is described. Membrane vesicles contained D-lactate-dependent activity of the system. Mutants defective in GABA transport were isolated; they lost the ability to utilize GABA as a nitrogen source, although the activities of glutamate-succinylsemialdehyde transaminase (GSST) (EC 2.6.1.19) and succinylsemialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSDH) (EC 1.2.1.16), the enzymes that catalyze GABA utilization, remained as high as in the parental CS101B strain. The ability to utilize L-ornithine, L-arginine, putrescine, L-proline, and glycine as a nitrogen source was preserved in the mutants. The genetic lesions resulting in the loss of GABA transport, gabP5 and gabP9, mapped in the gab gene cluster in close linkage to gabT and gabD, the structural genes of GSST and SSDH, and to gabC, a gene controlling the utilization of GABA, arginine, putrescine, and ornithine. The synthesis of the GABA transport carrier is subject to dual physiological control by catabolite repression and nitrogen availability. Experiments with glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2)-negative and with glutamine synthetase-constitutive strains strongly indicate that this enzyme is the effector in the regulation of GABA carrier synthesis by the latter route.

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

T1 - RNase E autoregulates its synthesis by controlling the degradation rate of its own mRNA in Escherichia coli

AB - Although the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) synthetic pathway of Escherichia coli is the prototype of such pathways, several unresolved issues have accumulated over the years. The key players are the fabA and fabB genes. Earlier studies of fabA transcription showed that the gene was transcribed from two promoters, with one being positively regulated by the FadR protein. The other weaker promoter (which could not be mapped with the technology then available) was considered constitutive because its function was independent of FadR. However, the FabR negative regulator was recently shown to represses fabA transcription. We report that the weak promoter overlaps the FadR-dependent promoter and is regulated by FabR. This promoter is strictly conserved in all E. coli and Salmonella enterica genomes sequenced to date and is thought to provide insurance against inappropriate regulation of fabA transcription by exogenous saturated fatty acids. Also, the fabAup promoter, a mutant promoter previously isolated by selection for increased FabA activity, was shown to be a promoter created de novo by a four-base deletion within the gene located immediately upstream of fabA. Demonstration of the key UFA synthetic reaction catalyzed by FabB has been elusive, although it was known to catalyze an elongation reaction. Strains lacking FabB are UFA auxotrophs indicating that the enzyme catalyzes an essential step in UFA synthesis. Using thioesterases specific for hydrolysis of short chain acyl-ACPs, the intermediates of the UFA synthetic pathway have been followed in vivo for the first time. These experiments showed that a fabB mutant strain accumulated less cis-5-dodecenoic acid than the parental wild-type strain. These data indicate that the key reaction in UFA synthesis catalyzed by FabB is elongation of the cis-3-decenoyl-ACP produced by FabA.

AB - RNase E is a key regulatory enzyme that appears to control the principal pathway for mRNA degradation in Escherichia coli. Here, we show that RNase E represses its own synthesis by reducing the cellular concentration of the rne (RNase E) gene transcript. Autoregulation is achieved by modulating the longevity of this 3.6-kb mRNA, whose half-life ranges from (40 sec to >8 min depending on the level of RNase E activity in the cell. Feedback regulation is mediated in cis by the 5'-terminal 0.44-kb segment of rne mRNA, which is sufficient to confer this property onto a heterologous transcript to which it is fused. Like the intact protein, an amino-terminal fragment of RNase E lacking 563 amino acid residues can act in trans to repress rne gene expression. Paradoxically, raising the rne gene copy number 21-fold in E. coli causes an unexpected reduction in the concentration of the full-length rne transcript, yet results in a small increase in RNase E protein production. These surprising phenomena are explained in terms of a model in which the degradation of this long and highly labile mRNA commences before elongation of the nascent transcript has been completed. In such circumstances, gene expression can be unusually sensitive to changes in mRNA stability.

Amino acid synthesis - Wikipedia

ad0618856. title : the biosynthesis of biotin in microorganisms. ii. mechanism of the regulation of biotin synthesis in escherichia coli, corporate author

β-Galactosidases are widespread, in microorganisms, animals and plants. That from the Escherichia coli strain K12 has been particularly studied at Anfinsen's laboratory in connection with genetic experiments on gene regulation of protein synthesis. Craven, Steers and Anfinsen 1965). The enzyme has been reviewed in detail by Wallenfels and Weil (1972). Lactase may be used as a reagent for determining lactose in blood and other biological fluids.

β-Galactosidases are widespread, in microorganisms, animals and plants. That from the Escherichia coli strain K12 has been particularly studied at Anfinsen's laboratory in connection with genetic experiments on gene regulation of protein synthesis. Craven, Steers and Anfinsen 1965). The enzyme has been reviewed in detail by Wallenfels and Weil (1972). Lactase may be used as a reagent for determining lactose in blood and other biological fluids.

TY - JOUR. T1 - MRNA context dependent regulation of cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 translation by GidA, a tRNA modification enzyme in Escherichia coli
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Escherichia coli - Infectious Disease and Antimicrobial …

A specific γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) transport system in E. coli K-12 cells with a K(m) of 12μM and a V(max) of 278 nmol/ml of intracellular water per min is described. Membrane vesicles contained D-lactate-dependent activity of the system. Mutants defective in GABA transport were isolated; they lost the ability to utilize GABA as a nitrogen source, although the activities of glutamate-succinylsemialdehyde transaminase (GSST) (EC 2.6.1.19) and succinylsemialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSDH) (EC 1.2.1.16), the enzymes that catalyze GABA utilization, remained as high as in the parental CS101B strain. The ability to utilize L-ornithine, L-arginine, putrescine, L-proline, and glycine as a nitrogen source was preserved in the mutants. The genetic lesions resulting in the loss of GABA transport, gabP5 and gabP9, mapped in the gab gene cluster in close linkage to gabT and gabD, the structural genes of GSST and SSDH, and to gabC, a gene controlling the utilization of GABA, arginine, putrescine, and ornithine. The synthesis of the GABA transport carrier is subject to dual physiological control by catabolite repression and nitrogen availability. Experiments with glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2)-negative and with glutamine synthetase-constitutive strains strongly indicate that this enzyme is the effector in the regulation of GABA carrier synthesis by the latter route.

In 1885 Theodor von Escherich described E

AB - A specific γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) transport system in E. coli K-12 cells with a K(m) of 12μM and a V(max) of 278 nmol/ml of intracellular water per min is described. Membrane vesicles contained D-lactate-dependent activity of the system. Mutants defective in GABA transport were isolated; they lost the ability to utilize GABA as a nitrogen source, although the activities of glutamate-succinylsemialdehyde transaminase (GSST) (EC 2.6.1.19) and succinylsemialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSDH) (EC 1.2.1.16), the enzymes that catalyze GABA utilization, remained as high as in the parental CS101B strain. The ability to utilize L-ornithine, L-arginine, putrescine, L-proline, and glycine as a nitrogen source was preserved in the mutants. The genetic lesions resulting in the loss of GABA transport, gabP5 and gabP9, mapped in the gab gene cluster in close linkage to gabT and gabD, the structural genes of GSST and SSDH, and to gabC, a gene controlling the utilization of GABA, arginine, putrescine, and ornithine. The synthesis of the GABA transport carrier is subject to dual physiological control by catabolite repression and nitrogen availability. Experiments with glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2)-negative and with glutamine synthetase-constitutive strains strongly indicate that this enzyme is the effector in the regulation of GABA carrier synthesis by the latter route.

coli and named the organism Bacterium coli commune

RNase E is a key regulatory enzyme that appears to control the principal pathway for mRNA degradation in Escherichia coli. Here, we show that RNase E represses its own synthesis by reducing the cellular concentration of the rne (RNase E) gene transcript. Autoregulation is achieved by modulating the longevity of this 3.6-kb mRNA, whose half-life ranges from (40 sec to >8 min depending on the level of RNase E activity in the cell. Feedback regulation is mediated in cis by the 5'-terminal 0.44-kb segment of rne mRNA, which is sufficient to confer this property onto a heterologous transcript to which it is fused. Like the intact protein, an amino-terminal fragment of RNase E lacking 563 amino acid residues can act in trans to repress rne gene expression. Paradoxically, raising the rne gene copy number 21-fold in E. coli causes an unexpected reduction in the concentration of the full-length rne transcript, yet results in a small increase in RNase E protein production. These surprising phenomena are explained in terms of a model in which the degradation of this long and highly labile mRNA commences before elongation of the nascent transcript has been completed. In such circumstances, gene expression can be unusually sensitive to changes in mRNA stability.

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