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Enkephalin. Synthesis of two pentapeptides isolated …

AB - In this paper, we describe that met-enkephalin and/or enkephalin- containing intermediary peptides of the prohormone pro-enkephalin A are produced and secreted by human peripheral blood T cells and monocytes. The peptides are produced after stimulation with the mitogenic monoclonal antibodies anti-CD2.1/2.2 and anti-CD28. In monocytes, enkephalin synthesis was induced by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. We demonstrate here that these immune cell-derived enkephalins play an important regulatory role in the immune response. By using an anti-sense oligonucleotide strategy we could block the production of enkephalins. Blockade of the production of met- enkephalin and enkephalin-containing intermediary peptides resulted in enhancement of the proliferative T cell response and inhibition of monocyte IL-6 secretion. In vitro reconstitution of the anti-sense treated cultures with synthetic met-enkephalin or the delta-type specific opioid receptor agonist deltorphin could reverse inhibition of monocyte IL-6 production, suggesting that endogenous enkephalins act via membrane opioid receptors. In contrast, addition of met-enkephalin or deltorphin to the anti-sense treated T cell cultures did not have any effect on T cell proliferation.

Synthesis of the leu-enkephalin gene.

N2 - The precursor of Leu-enkephalin, Z-l-TyrGlyGly-l-Phe-l-LeuOEt, was synthesized from amino acid derivatives with three proteinases without the protection of the side chain of l-Tyr. First, Z-GlyGlyOBut and Z-l-TyrGlyGlyOBut were synthesized in quite a high yield, 83% and 99%, in an aqueous/organic biphasic system by papain and α-chymotrypsin, respectively. Then, Z-l-Phe-l-LeuOEt was synthesized by thermolysin from Z-l-Phe and l-LeuOEt either in buffer or in a biphasic system; the yields were 95% and 100%, respectively. The synthesis of Z-l-TyrGlyGly-l-Phe-l-LeuOEt from Z-l-TyrGlyGly and l-Phe-l-LeuOEt was performed effectively by thermolysin immobilized on Amberlite XAD-7 in a buffer and in an aqueous/organic biphasic system, as well as in saturated ethyl acetate, while the yield was low in reactions by free thermolysin. In the reaction with the immobilized enzyme (IME) in saturated ethyl acetate, the maximum yield of the precursor of Leu-enkephalin was 68%. The reasons for effective synthesis with IME are: (1) higher concentration of l-Phe-l-LeuOEt inside support, which resulted in rising the rate of the synthesis reaction and protecting the competitive hydrolysis of Z-l-TyrGlyGly by thermolysin, (2) entrapment of the product inside the support where thermolysin could not act in the case of reaction in buffer, and (3) extraction of the product with the organic solvent in the case of reaction in a biphasic system or in saturated organic solvent.

Met enkephalin synthesis essay - New Song Learning Center

T1 - Enzymatic synthesis of the precursor of Leu-enkephalin in water-immiscible organic solvent systems

T1 - Enkephalin biosynthesis in adrenal medulla. Modulation of proenkephalin mRNA content of cultured chromaffin cells by 8-bromo-adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate

H.AU - Huidobro Toro,P.PY - 1983Y1 - 1983N2 - Four analogs of enkephalin (EK) have been synthesized by the solid-phase method and their biological activities have also been investigated.

Synthesis and Evaluation of N,N-Dialkyl Enkephalin …

Synthesis and Evaluation of N,N-Dialkyl Enkephalin-Based Affinity Labels for δ Opioid Receptors

N2 - In this paper, we describe that met-enkephalin and/or enkephalin- containing intermediary peptides of the prohormone pro-enkephalin A are produced and secreted by human peripheral blood T cells and monocytes. The peptides are produced after stimulation with the mitogenic monoclonal antibodies anti-CD2.1/2.2 and anti-CD28. In monocytes, enkephalin synthesis was induced by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. We demonstrate here that these immune cell-derived enkephalins play an important regulatory role in the immune response. By using an anti-sense oligonucleotide strategy we could block the production of enkephalins. Blockade of the production of met- enkephalin and enkephalin-containing intermediary peptides resulted in enhancement of the proliferative T cell response and inhibition of monocyte IL-6 secretion. In vitro reconstitution of the anti-sense treated cultures with synthetic met-enkephalin or the delta-type specific opioid receptor agonist deltorphin could reverse inhibition of monocyte IL-6 production, suggesting that endogenous enkephalins act via membrane opioid receptors. In contrast, addition of met-enkephalin or deltorphin to the anti-sense treated T cell cultures did not have any effect on T cell proliferation.

Incubation of primary cultures of chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medulla with 8-bromo-adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP) resulted in an increase in proenkephalin mRNA content. The mRNA that increased was detected by hybridization analysis using a cDNA probe and migrated with an apparent size of approximately 1400 bases. The increase in proenkephalin mRNA following 8-Br-cyclic AMP treatment was apparent in 12 hr and continued over 2 days. Corresponding changes were detected in enkephalin-like immunoreactivity but with a 24-hr lag: the cellular content increased significantly after 2 days of treatment and continued to rise over the next 2 days, whereas changes in the amount released to the medium followed the same time course. Dose-response curves for the increase in the content of proenkephalin mRNA and of enkephalin-containing peptides were essentially identical. Chromatographic characterization of the enkephalin-like peptides demonstrated that 8-Br-cyclic AMP increased both the high molecular weight fraction and the low molecular weight fraction, which was shown by high-pressure liquid chromatography to contain Met5-enkephalin, Leu5-enkephalin, and Met5-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7. Previous results in chromaffin cells have demonstrated that the synthesis of tyrosine hydroxylase is also regulated by cyclic AMP, with a similar time course. These results therefore suggest the possibility of coordinate regulation by cyclic AMP of the expression of the cotransmitters, catecholamines and enkephalin peptides, in the adrenal medulla.

Solid-phase synthesis of O-linked glycopeptide analogues of enkephalin
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Enkephalin biosynthesis in adrenal medulla. Modulation …

The precursor of Leu-enkephalin, Z-l-TyrGlyGly-l-Phe-l-LeuOEt, was synthesized from amino acid derivatives with three proteinases without the protection of the side chain of l-Tyr. First, Z-GlyGlyOBut and Z-l-TyrGlyGlyOBut were synthesized in quite a high yield, 83% and 99%, in an aqueous/organic biphasic system by papain and α-chymotrypsin, respectively. Then, Z-l-Phe-l-LeuOEt was synthesized by thermolysin from Z-l-Phe and l-LeuOEt either in buffer or in a biphasic system; the yields were 95% and 100%, respectively. The synthesis of Z-l-TyrGlyGly-l-Phe-l-LeuOEt from Z-l-TyrGlyGly and l-Phe-l-LeuOEt was performed effectively by thermolysin immobilized on Amberlite XAD-7 in a buffer and in an aqueous/organic biphasic system, as well as in saturated ethyl acetate, while the yield was low in reactions by free thermolysin. In the reaction with the immobilized enzyme (IME) in saturated ethyl acetate, the maximum yield of the precursor of Leu-enkephalin was 68%. The reasons for effective synthesis with IME are: (1) higher concentration of l-Phe-l-LeuOEt inside support, which resulted in rising the rate of the synthesis reaction and protecting the competitive hydrolysis of Z-l-TyrGlyGly by thermolysin, (2) entrapment of the product inside the support where thermolysin could not act in the case of reaction in buffer, and (3) extraction of the product with the organic solvent in the case of reaction in a biphasic system or in saturated organic solvent.

Synthesis of enkephalins by adrenal medullary …

AB - Incubation of primary cultures of chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medulla with 8-bromo-adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP) resulted in an increase in proenkephalin mRNA content. The mRNA that increased was detected by hybridization analysis using a cDNA probe and migrated with an apparent size of approximately 1400 bases. The increase in proenkephalin mRNA following 8-Br-cyclic AMP treatment was apparent in 12 hr and continued over 2 days. Corresponding changes were detected in enkephalin-like immunoreactivity but with a 24-hr lag: the cellular content increased significantly after 2 days of treatment and continued to rise over the next 2 days, whereas changes in the amount released to the medium followed the same time course. Dose-response curves for the increase in the content of proenkephalin mRNA and of enkephalin-containing peptides were essentially identical. Chromatographic characterization of the enkephalin-like peptides demonstrated that 8-Br-cyclic AMP increased both the high molecular weight fraction and the low molecular weight fraction, which was shown by high-pressure liquid chromatography to contain Met5-enkephalin, Leu5-enkephalin, and Met5-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7. Previous results in chromaffin cells have demonstrated that the synthesis of tyrosine hydroxylase is also regulated by cyclic AMP, with a similar time course. These results therefore suggest the possibility of coordinate regulation by cyclic AMP of the expression of the cotransmitters, catecholamines and enkephalin peptides, in the adrenal medulla.

Enzymatic synthesis of the precursor of Leu-enkephalin …

N2 - Incubation of primary cultures of chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medulla with 8-bromo-adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP) resulted in an increase in proenkephalin mRNA content. The mRNA that increased was detected by hybridization analysis using a cDNA probe and migrated with an apparent size of approximately 1400 bases. The increase in proenkephalin mRNA following 8-Br-cyclic AMP treatment was apparent in 12 hr and continued over 2 days. Corresponding changes were detected in enkephalin-like immunoreactivity but with a 24-hr lag: the cellular content increased significantly after 2 days of treatment and continued to rise over the next 2 days, whereas changes in the amount released to the medium followed the same time course. Dose-response curves for the increase in the content of proenkephalin mRNA and of enkephalin-containing peptides were essentially identical. Chromatographic characterization of the enkephalin-like peptides demonstrated that 8-Br-cyclic AMP increased both the high molecular weight fraction and the low molecular weight fraction, which was shown by high-pressure liquid chromatography to contain Met5-enkephalin, Leu5-enkephalin, and Met5-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7. Previous results in chromaffin cells have demonstrated that the synthesis of tyrosine hydroxylase is also regulated by cyclic AMP, with a similar time course. These results therefore suggest the possibility of coordinate regulation by cyclic AMP of the expression of the cotransmitters, catecholamines and enkephalin peptides, in the adrenal medulla.

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