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distribution in the endoplasmic reticulum; synthesis …

1. The Endoplasmic Reticulum
2. Exit of proteins from ER and transport to the Golgi
3. The Golgi and its dynamics
4. Processing of proteins in the ER and in the Golgi

What is different about the protein that is destined for the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

We will study this topic at the level of the cellular components and organelles involved in the process: ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles (transport and secretory). Now watch the movie in this introduction.

Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Some ER has ribosomes on the surface (rough endoplasmic reticulum) --the cell's protein-making machinery.

Proteins with multiple membrane crossing domains are inserted in the the membrane through the action of multiple pairs of start transfer and stop transfer signals:

Key point is that the orientation of a protein in the membrane is established when it is first inserted into the membrane. This orientation of the protein persists all of the way to its final destination. That is, the cytosolic side of membrane remains on the cytosolic side throughout all processes.

the membrane of the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum ..


You will start in the nucleus and travel through the cell to find out how they're made and where they go.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Membranes
Follow the links provided to websites that help you on your quest.

The peptide moves through the translocation channel into the lumen of the ER. The signal peptide sequence remains attached to the membrane. It is later cleaved off by a signal peptidase. Leaving the protein free in the lumen of the ER.

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The Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum - …

This cartoon is also from your text. It shows the system without the ribosome. Here you get a better view of the pore through which the protein projects into the lumen and the signal sequence.

The Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum

2. The Signal Recognition Particle Receptor (SRPR) which is embedded in the ER membrane. We now have the new polypeptide synthesizing system in place and protein synthesis speeds up. It seems that the Signal Sequence opens the translocation channel.

Micrograph of rough endoplasmic reticulum network ..

After translation, the protein passes into the channels of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for transportation. The protein is then passed from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus inside tiny fluid-filled sacs, called vesicles. The Golgi apparatus is a system of , which are responsible for the modification, processing, and packaging of the proteins. The protein may have a carbohydrate added, to form a glycoprotein. The Golgi apparatus packages the protein in a secretory vesicle, which fuses with the cell membrane and releases the protein from the cell.

the Termination of Protein Synthesis".

Despite the flow of proteins through the Golgi apparatus, each part of the organelle has specific proteins that are resident in that region. For example, there are specific proteins that are located in the cis cisterna of the Golgi. There are enzymes that are found in the medial cisternae, and others that are located in the trans cisterna or in the trans Golgi net work. This is not a new idea. As we have already mentioned that there are proteins that are resident in the ER.

rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) - protein synthesis

1. There is a Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) in the cytosol. This binds to the ER Signal sequence when it is exposed on the ribosome and slows protein synthesis long enough to allow the SRP to find the second part, the SRP Receptor.

Lecture 27 Protein Targeting- Endoplasmic Reticuluum

Proteins are carried from the ER to the Golgi by vesicles (transitional vesicles). These vesicles bud from the ER cisternae through the formation of coated buds as described in the last lecture. There are two major families of coat proteins, COP and clathrin. COP proteins are involved in vesicle formation in the ER and in the cis portion of the Golgi. Clathrin, on the other hand is involved in forming vesicles in the trans Golgi network and at the cell surface.

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