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These ingredients are essential for photosynthesis and respiration.
Today, humanity dominates Earth and is not only depleting its primary energy resources at prodigious rates, but it is also that rivals the . Humans may cause Earth’s greatest mass extinction, which may take humanity with it. Today, , and almost nobody seems to know or care. Humanity is a tunnel-visioned, egocentric species, and almost all people are only concerned about their immediate self-interest and are oblivious of what lies ahead. Not all humans are so blind, and and , among others intimately familiar with the impacts of global civilization, are terrified by what humanity is inflicting onto Earth. Also, those who realize that we are quickly coming to the Hydrocarbon Age’s end are and I cannot blame them. We are in a “” scenario, and several manmade trends threaten our future existence.
is complex, but the preceding presentation is largely adequate for this essay’s purpose, while it can be helpful to be aware that the physics behind FE and antigravity technologies will probably render the Standard Model obsolete. If FE, antigravity, and related technologies finally come in from the shadows, the elusive may come with them, and the Unified Field might well be consciousness, which will help unite the scientist and the mystic, and . But that understanding is not necessary to relate the story that White Science tells today of how Earth developed from its initial state to today’s, when complex life is under siege by an ape that quickly spread across the planet like a cancer once it achieved the requisite intelligence, social organization, and technological prowess.
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Because of early Eocene Arctic forests, animals moved freely between Asia, Europe, Greenland, and North America, which were , and great mammalian radiations occurred in the early Eocene. Many familiar mammals first appeared by the mid-Eocene, such as , elephants, , and . The may have first appeared in Asia and migrated to India, Africa, and the Americas. Europe was not yet connected with Asia, however, as the separated them. Modern observers might be startled to know where many animals originated. and lived there for more than 40 million years, until humans arrived. Their only surviving descendants in the Western Hemisphere are . As with , or , or , or Eocene mammalian migrations via polar routes, the migrants often involuntarily “sailed” on vegetation mats that crossed relatively short gaps between the continents. Such a migration depended on fortuitous prevailing currents and other factors, but it happened often enough.
For several million years, life in the Eocene was halcyonic, and at 50 mya, the state had prevailed ever since the 250 mya. But just as , Earth began cooling off. The ultimate reason was atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that had been steadily declining for tens of millions of years. The intense volcanism of the previous 200 million years waned and the inexorably sequestered carbon into Earth’s crust and mantle. While falling carbon dioxide levels were the ultimate cause, the first proximate cause was probably the isolation of Antarctica at the South Pole and changes in global ocean currents. During the early Eocene, the global ocean floor’s water temperature was about 13oC (55oF), warm enough to swim in, which was a far cry from today’s near-freezing and below-freezing temperatures. The North Sea was warm as bathwater. Radical , warming the ocean floor, and . Whatever the causes were, the oceans were warm from top to bottom, from pole to pole. But between 50 to 45 mya, Australia made its final split from Antarctica and moved northward, India began crashing into Asia and cut off the Tethys Ocean and the global tropical circulation, and South America also moved northward, away from Antarctica. Although the debate is still fierce over the cooling’s exact causes, the evidence (much is from ) is that the oceans cooled off over the next 12 million years, very consistently, although a brief small reversal transpired at about 40 mya. By 37-38 mya, the 200-million-year-plus Greenhouse Earth phase ended and the transition to today’s ice age was underway. In the late Eocene, as the trend toward conditions began, such as the .
Which is the end result of photosynthesis? | …
Polar forests reappeared in the Eocene after the , and the Eocene’s was the Cenozoic’s warmest time and . Not only did alligators live near the North Pole, but the continents and oceans hosted an abundance and diversity of life that Earth may have not seen before or since. That ten million year period ended as Earth began cooling off and headed toward the current ice age, and it has been called the original Paradise Lost. One way that methane has been implicated in those hot times is that leaves have , which regulate the air they take in to obtain carbon dioxide and oxygen, needed for photosynthesis and respiration. Plants also lose water vapor through their stomata, so balancing gas input needs against water losses are key stomata functions, and it is thought that in periods of high carbon dioxide concentration, . Scientists can count stomata density in fossil leaves, which led some scientists to conclude that carbon dioxide levels were not high enough to produce the PETM, so that produced the PETM and , and the controversy and research continues.
That cooling caused the greatest mass extinction of the entire Cenozoic Era, at least until today’s incipient . With continents now scattered across Earth’s surface, there was no event that wiped nearly everything out as the end-Permian extinction did, nor were bolide events convincingly implicated. But mass extinctions punctuated a 12-million-year period when Earth’s global ocean and surface temperatures steadily declined. When it was finished, there were no more polar forests, no more alligators in Greenland or palm trees in Alaska, and Antarctica was developing its ice sheets. A few million years later, in Europe marked the Eocene’s end and the Oligocene’s beginning, but the middle-Eocene extinctions were more significant. All in all, there was about a 14-million-year period of cooling and extinction, which encompassed the mid-Eocene to early Oligocene, and Icehouse Earth conditions reappeared after a more-than-200-million-year hiatus.
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The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
People are usually surprised to hear that grass is a relatively recent plant innovation. and only became common in the late Cretaceous, along with flowering plants. With grass, some , and grazers have been plentiful Cenozoic herbivores. According to , carbon dioxide levels have been falling nearly continuously for the past 150-100 million years. Not only has that decline progressively cooled Earth to the point where we live in an ice age today, but is currently considered the key reason why complex life may become extinct on Earth in several hundred million years. In the Oligocene, between 32 mya and 25 mya some plants developed a during photosynthesis known as . It allowed plants to adapt to reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. C4 plants became in the Miocene, and grasses are today’s most common C4 plants and . The rest of Earth’s photosynthesizers use or , which is a water-conserving process used in arid biomes.
Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
Paleocene mammals were rarely apex predators. Crocodilians survived the end-Cretaceous extinction and remained dominant in freshwater environments, although turtles lived in their golden age in the Paleocene Americas and might have even for a brief time. The largest snakes ever recorded (, ) lived in the Paleocene and could swallow crocodiles whole. In addition to , a and , although . When the began three mya, one of those flightless South American birds quickly became a .
Quia - Photosynthesis and Respiration
But the African Oligocene event of most interest to most humans was African primate evolution. By the Eocene’s end, primates were extinct in Europe and North America, and largely gone in Asia. Africa became the Oligocene's refuge for primates as they lived in the remaining rainforest. The first animals that evolved in the late Eocene, and what appears to be a appeared in Africa at the Oligocene’s beginning, about 35-33 mya. But ancestral to that creature was one that also led to those that migrated to South America, probably via vegetation rafts (with perhaps a land bridge helping), around the same time. Those South American monkeys are known as today and they evolved in isolation for more than 30 million years. For those that stayed behind in Africa, first appeared around the same time as those New World monkeys migrated; they diverged from . Scientists today think that somewhere between about 35 mya and 29 mya the splits between those three lineages happened. Old World and New World monkeys have not changed much in the intervening years, but apes sure have.
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