Quick academic help
Don't let the stress of school get you down! Have your essay written by a professional writer before the deadline arrives.
What Are Photosynthesis and Respiration?
The metabolic adaptations to low oxygen are controlled by several genetic pathways. Unlike wild-type animals, mutants survive poorly in the range of 0.5 - 1% oxygen (). In this range of oxygen concentration, animals decrease oxygen consumption, but continue to grow and reproduce. Thus is required for adaptation to hypoxia but not anoxia, where the worms enter a state of suspended animation (). embryos can survive in both anoxia and hypoxia, but not in the oxygen concentration range between 0.01 and 0.1 kPa O2. Carbon monoxide can protect embryos and mutants from hypoxic damage by inhibiting respiration and inducing suspended animation (). Prolonged survival without oxygen is regulated by the insulin/IGF receptor homolog and the genes encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and contribute to this effect (; ). Anoxic conditions also induce upregulation of several globin genes and this effect requires and ().
has an unusually broad oxygen tolerance. The metabolic rate of the animals was not affected by increasing oxygen levels to 100% oxygen for 24 h. (). Worm populations survived and appeared healthy after 50 generations of continuous exposure to 100% (91 kPa) oxygen. The biochemical basis of this unusual resistance to hyperoxia has not been investigated. Mutations in , encoding the cytochrome unit of complex II, and , which affects complex I-dependent mitochondrial respiration, resulted in enhanced ROS production and sensitivity to hyperoxia (; ).
Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis StudyBlue Quora
Major questions that remain unanswered include: How does a mutation affecting mitochondrial function lead to extended lifespan? and What kind of metabolic changes are involved in the process? ) presented plausible biochemical scenarios in partial explanation, ranging from a reduction in overall metabolic rate to activation of compensatory metabolic pathways to combat ROS. For example, mild increases in ROS could evoke hormesis effects resulting in enhanced ROS scavenging. Alternatively, other pathways that produce less ROS, such as fermentation, could be induced (). Although many of these proposed mechanisms are indirectly supported by existing literature, these hypotheses still await direct experimental validation.
Apart from direct physiological measurements, Ins/IGF-mutant metabolism was also studied by analyzing transcriptional profiles of metabolism-related genes. ) found that, in mutants, gluconeogenesis, glyoxylate pathway activity and trehalose biosynthesis were upregulated relative to the appropriate controls ( versus adults). These authors found similar qualitative changes in dauer larvae compared to recovered dauer larvae. Unlike dauer stage animals, TCA-cycle and respiratory chain activities were not downregulated in mutants, supporting the physiological data discussed above (). In addition, in part explanation for the high ATP levels found in these mutants, the mitochondrial F1-ATPase inhibitor protein (IF1), which specifically inhibits the ATPase activity of ATP synthase under anoxic conditions, was found to be upregulated in .
A comparison between Photosynthesis and Respiration:
Let us see now how protists and other little animals of ponds react to alteration to theirenvironment.
1 - Some microscopic algae, like the euglena, search out light (phototaxis) and to do thisthey use an organelle sensible to the light, named stigma. With a dark paper, cover thebottom part of a test tube holding a culture of euglena. The part of the test tube exposedto light should become green, rich with algae. Make the same experiment with othermicroscopic algae and with protozoa.
2 - Add two or three drop of distilled water to a little water drop collected in a pondand watch what happens to the protists. Very probably you will see them inflate and thenexplode. This occurs because of the different saline concentration inside and outside theprotists and the osmotic pressure which is produced inside their cells.
3 - Protists are sensitive to most chemicals and generally they react by running away; insome cases instead they approach them (chemotaxis). Prepare some microscope slides withprotists and observe through the microscope their behavior when you add acidic substances(i.e.: vinegar), basic substances (i.e.: backing soda), glucose, salt, sparkling water(rich of CO2), broth, milk, tiny grain of cheese, dyes, etc. At thebeginning use very low amounts of these substances, then increase their concentration.
4 - From a pond or an aquarium, collect a hydra and place it on a microscope slide with apair of water drops. Observing this tiny polyp through the microscope, probably you willsee some sucker shaped microorganisms (trichodina) moving on its body. Watch what happensafter adding a little drop of vinegar to their water! Trichodina will escape from thehydra and probably die. Hydra itself will have launched many of its harmful paralyzingdarts.
5 - Submit protists to different stimulus such as light, temperature, electric field(about 5 V in DC). In this last case, some protists will gather on the cathode (thenegative - pole). Also amebas are inclined to move towards the cathode. Change thepolarity of the current and observe the behavior of the protists.
Internet Keyword: phototaxis chemotaxis protists.
A lot of organisms emit light. Of course you know fireflies, but there are also otherluminescent organisms such as some fishes, mushrooms, bacteria, dinoflagellates, andshellfishes. The culture of luminescent bacteria is not difficult. What you have to do isto get a strain of luminescent and harmless bacteria and raise it in a suitable culturemedium. A bacterium widely cultured and used also for lessons in schools is the Photobacteriumphosphoreum, now renamed: Vibrio phosphoreum.
Search for information about the mechanism of the bioluminescence. You can findinformation for this culture and general information on the Internet at sites listedlater. There is a lot of information on bioluminescence on the Internet. There are evenamateur sites devoted to this topic. You can buy the Vibrio phosphoreum at commercially,such as the ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) .You can find other firms of this type on the Internet, using the keywords: culturecollection. Also try the links for the protists experiment. These companies also supplythe culture media and in their sites you can often read their composition.
: In these experiments, need thehelp of a biologist to avoid culturing dangerous microorganisms. Even with help, keep thecultures only for a short time, wash your hands, wash and disinfect all tools which havebeen in contact with the cultures.
Utilisation Pedagogique de Bacteries Luminescentes (in French)
Bioluminescence in Plankton and Nekton (there is a list of luminescent organisms)
Flash! Bacterial illumination
Isolation of Pure Cultures Of Bacteria (Please, read the safety warnings present inthis website)
Bioluminescence Web sites
Internet Keyword: luminous bacteria luminescent bioluminescence luciferin luciferase.
To find companies which sell strains of microorganisms use the keywords: culturecollection.
Are the insects which fly around lamps at night attracted by light or heat? To find out,use a clothing iron and an electric lamp. The electric lamp produces light with a littleheat, the iron produces only heat. Put both on a table. Keep them at least a meter (abouta yard) apart and with the emitting surfaces turned away from you. Note the differentbehavior of insects. Mask the lamp with plastic sheets of different colors and verify ifbugs are more attracted to a particular color. This is also a method to capture nighttimeinsects, particularly moths, so you can observe them with a lens or a stereoscopicmicroscope.
Why choose our assistance?
As soon as we have completed your work, it will be proofread and given a thorough scan for plagiarism.
Our clients' personal information is kept confidential, so rest assured that no one will find out about our cooperation.
We write everything from scratch. You'll be sure to receive a plagiarism-free paper every time you place an order.
We will complete your paper on time, giving you total peace of mind with every assignment you entrust us with.
Want something changed in your paper? Request as many revisions as you want until you're completely satisfied with the outcome.
We're always here to help you solve any possible issue. Feel free to give us a call or write a message in chat.
which is biggest producer of photosynthetic byproducts. Why?
The term cellular respiration refers to the biochemical pathway by which cells release energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules and provide that energy for the essential processes of life. All living cells must carry out cellular respiration. It can be in the presence of oxygen or . carry out cellular respiration within the cytoplasm or on the inner surfaces of the cells. More emphasis here will be placed on where the are the site of most of the reactions. The energy currency of these cells is , and one way to view the outcome of cellular respiration is as a production process for ATP.
What are the products of the light reaction?
Cellular respiration produces CO2 as a metabolic waste. This CO2 binds with water to form carbonic acid, helping to maintain the blood's . Since too much CO2 would lower the blood's pH too much, the removal of the excess CO2 must be accomplished on an ongoing basis.
What are the products of the dark reaction?
Aerobic respiration, or in the presence of oxygen, uses the end product of (pyruvate) in the to produce much more energy currency in the form of than can be obtained from any . Aerobic respiration is characteristic of when they have sufficient oxygen and most of it takes place in the .
Energy Transformation: Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration
Theprocess by which green plants use sunlight energy to convert water &carbon dioxide into oxygen & glucose is the basis for virtuallyall life. Sugars, the first products of photosynthesis, are converted intostarch, protein, cellulose, and thousands of other chemical compounds.
How it works
You submit your order instructions
We assign an appropriate expert
The expert takes care of your task
We send it to you upon completion
Average quality score
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."