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Start studying Prosocial Behavior: Helping Others (Altruism)

According to the Empathy-altruism hypothesis by Daniel Batson(1991), thedecision of helping or not depends primarily on whether you feelempathy for the person and secondarily on the cost and rewards(social exchange concerns). It can be illustrated in the followingdiagram:

empathy altruism hypothesis (diagram) bystander intervention.

Explaining morality and altruistic behavior is not a problem, when we understand that humans are social animals. In order to survive, we mainly need to work together in groups. Groups of our distant ancestors that had individuals who worked together were more likely to succeed. Individuals who didn't cooperate in a group might have been kicked out of the group, and had their survival severely threatened. Groups that kept non-cooperative individuals were less likely to succeed. Laws are the explicit rules of interaction. Morality and laws are human constructs that come from basic human empathy, kindness and compassion, a desire to treat others as we wish to be treated, and our need to work together — not from some ancient static scriptures. Morality and laws have evolved as humans have evolved our culture. We are social animals evolved by natural selection, so the great majority of us will naturally desire the health of our families and the peace of our communities. Evolution has programmed us socially and biologically for morality and cooperation. Our morality comes out of our humanity.

Empathy altruism hypothesis research papers

Negative-State Relief and the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis

“where B is the benefit to the recipient, C is the cost to thealtruist (both measured as the number of offspring gained or lost)and r is the coefficient of relationship (i.e. the probability thatthey share the same gene by descent).”

Building on the analysis in Chapter 3 of behaviors differentially affected by altruistic and egoistic motives, this chapter reviews the results of over 30 experiments that were conducted between 1978 and 1996 to test the empathy-altruism hypothesis against six different egoistic alternatives. To assist assessment of this large body of evidence, a summary table is provided for each egoistic alternative. These tables present the procedures and results of all published experiments that test the empathy-altruism hypothesis against each alternative. The egoistic alternatives are: aversive-arousal reduction; two versions of empathy-specific punishment—avoiding negative social evaluation (censure) and avoiding negative self-evaluation (guilt); and three version of empathy-specific reward—seeking social and self-rewards for helping, seeking empathic joy, and seeking negative-state relief. Results of the experiments support the empathy-altruism hypothesis and fail to support any of the egoistic alternatives—or any combination of the egoistic alternatives.

PPT - Evaluate two theories explaining altruism …

The empathy-altruism hypothesis has been tested ..

Altruistic motivation—a motivational state with the ultimate goal of increasing another’s welfare—is distinguished from four other uses of the term altruism.

The question of why empathic concern might produce altruistic motivation is addressed by considering the information and amplification functions of emotions in general, as well as the relationship of emotion to motivation.Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

PPT – Evaluate two theories explaining altruism …
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The empathy-altruism hypothesis has been ..

The hypothesis was supported by some studies. For example, astudy conducted by Fultz and his colleagues (1986)divided participants into a high-empathy group and a low-empathygroup. They both had to listen to another student, Janet, whoreported feeling lonely. The study found that high-empathy group(told to imagine vividly how Janet felt) volunteered to spend moretime with Janet, whether or not their help is anonymous, whichmakes the social reward lower. It shows that if the person feelsempathy, they will help without considering the cost and reward,and it complies with the empathy-altruism hypothesis.

The Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis which has two ..

We also see actions in other mammals that have all the indications of love. Mothers care for, feed, protect, and train their young. and are especially known for forming pair and group bonds. Elephants even display compassion and altruism.

Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis - Changing minds

Trade in economic trades and business mayunderlie reciprocal altruism in which products given and receivedinvolve different exchanges .Economic trades follow the “I’ll scratch your back if you scratchmine” principle. A pattern of frequent giving and receiving of helpamong workers boost both productivity and social standing.

Altruistic Personality in the Context of the …

theory explains altruism in perspective. Since aids in screening out without abilities to adapt thechallenging environment, preservation of good traits and superior are important for survivalof future generations (i.e. ) . Kinselection refers to the tendency to perform behaviors that mayfavor the chance of survival of people with similar geneticbase.

Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis - University Press …

For god-fearing religions, the only reason to be moral is the child's (or a slave's) concept of morality — be good or you will be punished. For healthy non-believers, we can see that altruistic behavior and morality grow out of the knowledge that making others happy makes us happy.

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