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by Ron Kurtus (revised 10 December 2012)

Depending on the position of the train, the polarity of the electromagnets is adjusted, causing the train to move forward. Maglev trains can reach speeds over 260 mile per hour or 430 kilometers per hour.

 are used in a number of everyday .

Potential Near an Arbitrary Charge Distribution

Batteries, Resistors and Ohm's Law



Capacitors



The Magnetic Effect of an Electric Current



Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field



On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies

Questions you may have include:

Weapons against whom? Safe to say, in order to enlist theaid of scientists, the military and CIA would act true to form,that is, to motivate and overcome reluctance due to dictates ofconscience, they would evoke a serious security risk, like theSoviets, during initial phases of development. In fact, on the"unclassified" face of it, a number of reports have openlysuggested use of "microwaves" against "terrorists".

Los Alamos National Laboratory, now under supervision ofUniversity of California, prepared a report for Federal EmergencyManagement Agency (FEMA) setting forth that use of microwaveradiation on terrorists could kill them, stun them or at leastmodify their behavior by changing their "perceptions." At thispoint the cloak is donned, and the report continues: "There arereports of Eurasian communist countries performing research withcombined fields of signals from several different microwavefrequencies to produce at least perceptual distortions inhumans."

Cable News Network recently aired a report on electromagneticweapons and showed an official document that was a contingencyplan to use electromagnetic weapons against terrorists. Itwasn't made clear who the terrorists were or what the contingencywas. Prior to the news show, however, reports had surfaced, thesource a DOD medical engineer, that in the content ofconditioning, microwaves and other modalities had regularly beenused against Palestinians.

It makes sense that the Palestinians would be targeted as agroup for experimental purposes and to meet strategic goals. Forinstance, to exacerbate discord between political factions, a"bad feeling" (biologically uncomfortable or threatening) wouldsimply be associated through use of sound with the idea of the"other" faction. It is an easy psychological trick to inducenegative attribution (where a "bad feeling" is caused to bemisattributed to something in our environment): feeling, followedclose in time with information input will color a thought, andbecome a conditioned emotional response (CER) if repeated. Anexcitatory autonomic reation requires a cognitive appraisal or"labelling" of the inducing cause. Both the autonomic reactionand the labelling can be transmitted from a distance usingelectromagnetic fields, like radio frequencies or microwaves and"sound."

Specific frequencies at low intensities can predictablyinfluence sensory processes. Feeling: pleasantness -unpleasantness, strain - relaxation, and excitement - quiescence,can be created with the fields. Negative feelings and avoidanceare strong biological phenomena and relate to survival. Feelingsare the true basis of much "decision-making" and often occur assub-threshold impressions. Anger and other negative feelings areeasy to cause to be displaced, and most people believe in the"trueness" of their feelings. Ideas including names can besynchronized with the the feelings that the fields can induce.

The end of Project Pandora may have signified the end ofresearch into the cause of effects of the varying frequenciesregistered at the American embassy in Moscow - some known to bedue to CIA and National Security Agency equipment, but interestin microwave and biological frequency weapons did not wane. Indeed, there are indications of applications. As we have seen,research that began in response to a security concern,transformed almost overnight into a search for weaponsapplications, while cloaked in disinformation about the Soviets. What types of weapons?

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Dr. Ross Adey, formerly of the Brain Research Center atUniversity of Southern California, Los Angeles, now at Loma LindaUniversity Medical School, Loma Linda, California, was among thefirst of the Pandora researchers. His work is more precise ininducing specific behavior, rather than merely causingdisorganization or decrements in performance -that is, apart fromhis studies on inducing calcium efflux in brain tissue, whichcauses interference with the fucntioning of the brain and is onebasis of "confusion weaponry."

More specifically, Adey's thesis is that if theelectroencephalogram (EEG) has informational significance, onecan induce behavioral changes if one imposes environmental fieldsthat look like EEG. During Adey's career, he has correlated awide variety of behavioral states with EEG, including emotionalstates (e.g., stress in hostile questioning), increments ofdecision making and conditioning, correct versus incorrectperformance, etc., and he has imposed electromagnetic fields thatlook like EEG, which has resulted in altered EEG and behavior.

In published accounts of Adey's work, he has shown that it ispossible to apply low biologic frequencies by using a radiofrequency carrier modulated at specific brain frequencies. Hedemonstrated that if the biological modulation on the carrierfrequency is close to frequencies in the natural EEG of thesubject, it will reinforce or increase the number ofmanifestations of the imposed rhythms, and modulate behavior.

The conditioning paradigm: animals were trained throughaversion to produce specific brain wave rhythms; animals trainedin a field with the same rhythm amplitude modulated on it,differed significantly from control animals in both accuracy andresistance to extinction (at least 50 days versus 10 in thecontrols). When the fields were used on untrained animals,occurrence of the applied rhythm increased in the animals' EEG.

Dr. Adey is an accomplished scientist, which leads one tobelieve the significance of this experiment goes beyond merereinforcement of the animal's brain waves. Did the rhythms thathe chose to apply have special significance with relation toinformation processing or conditioning? The 4.5 theta rhythmthat he applied was the natural reoccuring frequency that he hadmeasured in the hippocampus during a phase of avoidance learning. The hippocampus, as Adey wrote in an earlier paper, "...involvesneural processes connected with consolidation of memory traces. It relates closely to the need for focusing attention, and thedegree to which recapitulation of past experience is imposed." One might add, to ensure survival.

Does it follow that an EEG modulated carrier frequency can beused to enhance human avoidance learning? You bet, provided thesame careful procedures are followed with humans as were withanimals, the same result would accrue. Recall again the goals ofPandora - to discover whether a carefully constructedelectromagnetic signal could direct the mind.

The obvious question becomes, how many and with how muchaccuracy can behavioral states or "frames of mind" beintentionally imposed, that is, apart from the certaintechnological capability to promote disorganization anddegradation of perception and performance through use of thefields.

In fact, many components of learning or conditioningincluding affect (i.e., "feeling" or emotional states) can beimposed through use of the fields from a distance. E.g.,behavioral arousal, orienting reflex, subliminal stress (alarmreaction without realization of the contextual significance),so-called levels of consciousness, inhibition of cerebralfunctions, which would render one more susceptible to suggestionor influence, and so on. All components necessary to producebehavioral conditioning, including ways to provide contextualsignificance, can be applied from a distance (i.e., withoutdirect brain contact, as was necessary in older behaviormodification experiments.)

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Clever use of electromagnetic forces can create steady motion.

Electromagnetic induction is an interesting issue which will be very important for the students who are involved into the field of physics. The young person has the chance to construct a logical and original term paper which would observe electromagnetic induction from all sides. The student’s task is to prepare an informative presentation, description and explanation of the issue on electromagnetic induction touching upon the history of the discovery of this phenomenon, the experiments conducted for it, the usefulness of the discovery for the humanity and the practical application of electromagnetic induction in different spheres of the human life.

Use your imagination to create new applications

The strength of electromotive force does not depend on the cause of the change of the flux – the change of the magnetic flux or the motion of the circuit in magnetic field. The main purpose of Faraday’s research was the invention of the new sources of electricity. Due to the discovery of Faraday the humanity received such an important appliance as electric generator, which generates electricity through the mechanic power. Nowadays there are many types of such generators which work according to the same principle but generate different amount of electricity. The biggest and most productive electric generators are installed at the hydroelectric stations, which work due to the power of water. There are also small generators which work from the mechanic force of simple bicycles.

Use your knowledge and skills to help others succeed.

He discovered that the electromotive force, which occurs in closed conducting circuit, is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the surface, limited by this circuit.

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