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Hypothesis help, with egg osmosis and diffusion? | …
Hypothesized timeline concerning the evolution of eggs and nesting behavior: (i) presence of an air cell in the egg, (l) presence of brooding behavior, (r) reduction from two to one functioning ovary, and (v) presence of proto-avian incubation of eggs. were coelurosaurian dinosaurs, C. osmolka was an oviraptor, were small- to medium-sized theropods, Phu Phock refers to where (in Thailand) four small fossil eggs (about the size of goldfinch eggs) from the early Cretaceous were discovered in 2002 and 2003 (Buffetaut et al. 2005). Based on egg-shell characteristics and characteristics of four small bones found at the site, the parent species could have been a primitive bird or a non-avian theropod that exhibited several bird-like characteristics. is an extinct group of primitive birds from the Mesozoic. Ornithothoraces is a clade of birds that includes all enantiornithines and modern birds (Neornithes) (From: ).
In order to do this I will need to consider what osmosis is and make some experiments to help me investigate and find answers for the key questions....
Grade 8 Blog: Egg osmosis diffusion lab
Birds in tropical areas commonly lay about half as many eggs as those in north temperate areas. Lack (1947) proposed that latitudinal variation in clutch sizes was the result of differences in food availability. This food limitation hypothesis posits that clutch size is determined by food supply, with natural selection favoring clutch sizes that correspond to the number of viable young that the parent(s) can successfully raise, and the scarcity of food in tropical habitats limits clutch sizes. Another hypothesis, the nest predation hypothesis, proposes that small clutch sizes are favored in the tropics because there are more predators in the tropics and predators are more likely to locate nests with larger clutches and more young because more young mean increased rates of food delivery by adults and a greater likelihood that, with the increased activity, predators will locate nests. High rates of nest predation may also select for smaller clutches to reduce the investment in any single nesting attempt (Slagsvold 1982, Martin 1995). Field studies have provided little support for either of these hypotheses (Martin et al. 2000, Stutchbury and Morton 2008).
Incubation reduces microbial growth on eggshells -- Avian eggshells harbor microbes shortly after laying, and under appropriate ambient conditions they can multiply rapidly, penetrate through shell pores, infect egg contents and cause embryo mortality. Cook et al. (2005) experimentally examined how incubation affects bacterial processes on the eggshells of Pearl-eyed Thrashers () nesting in tropical montane and lowland forests in Puerto Rico. Bacteria and fungi grew rapidly on shells of newly laid, unincubated eggs exposed to ambient conditions, but declined to low levels on shells of eggs incubated by thrashers. Divergence in bacterial growth between incubated and exposed eggs was more marked at the montane forest than at the lowland site. Pathogenic microorganisms became increasingly dominant on shells of exposed eggs, but these groups were relatively rare on incubated eggs, where more benign, less invasive groups prevailed. Some incubation during laying may be necessary to decrease the probability of trans-shell infection by reducing the growth of harmful bacteria and fungi on eggshells, although it may increase hatching asynchrony and the likelihood of brood reduction.
Biology Experiment - Eggs and Osmosis
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