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Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation
It stands to reason then that athletes and active individuals would require more protein, and high-quality proteins, on a daily basis than those who spend their days sitting at a desk in front of a computer screen. (High-quality proteins contain all nine essential amino acids in amounts similar to amino acid requirements; animal proteins are higher quality than plant proteins.) While adequate high-quality protein is critical for good health and optimal athletic performance, the amount needed isn’t the one-size-fits-all recommendation the RDA suggests.
Directed evolution of proteins in vitro is a powerful tool for improving and creating biocatalysts. A number of in vitro evolution methodologies, such as mRNA display (5), ribosome display (6) and in vitro compartmentalization (7), depend on in vitro translation. For example, NEB first demonstrated that the PURE system is uniquely suited for the in vitro selection of restriction endonucleases using the in vitro compartmentalization method (8), as it is free of nonspecific nuclease activity. In this study, the PURE system and the DNA library were dispersed into more than 109 aqueous droplets in a water-in-oil emulsion. The droplet encapsulation provides a linkage between the phenotype (expressed protein) and the genotype (DNA), which sets the stage for the specific selection of restriction enzyme genes. Other researchers have reported that using the PURE system greatly improves the efficiency of ribosome display (9).
The Truth on How Much Protein You Really Need Per …
When to Eat Protein
Just as important as the amount and type of protein athletes should eat is when they should eat it. As a result of physical activity, muscle breaks down. If protein intake is low, that muscle isn’t replaced. Those who are acclimated to regular exercise experience less muscle protein breakdown.9 However, protein needs are greater during intense bouts of training. The general consensus is that protein ingestion after exercise, when muscle is most sensitive to nutrient intake, will boost muscle protein synthesis and recovery.10,11
A study recently published in the Journal of Nutrition found that muscle protein synthesis was 25% higher when protein was evenly distributed across breakfast, lunch, and dinner compared with a more typical pattern, when most protein was consumed at the evening meal, even when total protein intake was the same.12 Protein that’s evenly distributed throughout the day may be especially important for older, physically active adults, as older individuals experience a resistance to muscle protein synthesis in response to meals containing less protein; in other words, the protein threshold to trigger muscle protein synthesis is higher in older individuals.12
PLOS ONE: Improved Cell-Free RNA and Protein Synthesis …
The mixture of proteins in the American diet averages about 8% leucine. The range of protein thought to stimulate muscle protein synthesis after a meal is about 2.5 to 3.5 g.7 Dairy products, beef, poultry, seafood, pork, peanuts, beans, lentils, and soybeans are among the foods richest in leucine.8
According to Douglas Paddon-Jones, PhD, an associate professor at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston and a protein researcher, “The same basic model of consuming a moderate amount of high-quality protein three times a day applies to different aged athletes. But moderate for different sized people might range from 15 g to 40-plus grams per meal.”
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Cell-free RNA and protein synthesis ..
Research suggests that of all the essential amino acids, leucine may be the limiting factor in initiating muscle protein synthesis, and that leucine-rich proteins may be the best way to boost muscle protein synthesis after intense physical activity.7 Some researchers suggest that protein quality based on leucine content is important when consuming small meals or when the total amount of protein consumed is less than optimal.7
Nutritional Efficiency of Protein and Fat Deposition.
Type of Protein to Consider
The International Society of Sports Nutrition recommends that high-quality proteins be consumed. It highlights milk-derived whey protein isolate and casein and egg white and soy protein isolate as proteins that provide essential amino acids that are readily taken up by muscle to optimize nitrogen balance and muscle protein synthesis.6
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7. Bauer J, Biolo G, Cederholm T, et al. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013;14(8):542-559.
Improving protein efficiency of milk ..
Since added protein intake is critical for athletes and physically active people, should they consume a high-protein diet? Instead of recommending protein as grams per kilogram of body weight, the Institute of Medicine established an acceptable macronutrient distribution range for protein at 10% to 35% of total calories for adults older than 18.1 The Institute of Medicine defines the acceptable macronutrient distribution range as a range of intake associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. The average protein intake in the United States of 15% of total calories is well within the acceptable macronutrient distribution range but well below recommended intakes for most athletes. 1,13 Even the 95th percentile of protein intake for US adults doesn’t come close to the highest acceptable macronutrient distribution range for protein at 35% of total calories.14 Higher intakes of high-quality protein recommended for athletes would still be well within the acceptable macronutrient distribution range.14
This increases the efficiency of protein synthesis.
When beginning endurance training, nitrogen balance may be negative for the first two weeks, and protein requirements may be higher in the first week of strength training to support new muscle growth. After one to two weeks of training, however, typically the body adapts and the protein utilization decreases. In general, adequate calorie and carbohydrate intake reduces the need for amino acid oxidation for energy and spares dietary protein and muscle tissue. Protein sparing is based on the concept that if adequate energy is consumed from carbohydrate and fat then dietary protein is available for protein-unique functions (ie, protein synthesis [tissue, hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, etc]). To protect muscle protein, consider counseling athletes to temporarily increase protein intake when starting a new training program or entering a new training phase.2
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