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Effect of different colors of light on the rate of photosynthesis.
Finally, back to the aspect of Calcium (& magnesium) in general is if these important elements are in short supply besides the before mentioned problems, an aquarist may also see pH swings a few hours after the lights go on as the process of Photosynthesis in algae will increase pH during daylight hours if low levels of calcium and magnesium are present (as noted earlier in the GH section as per studies).
Keep in mind that a pH swing from 7.8 to 8.2 (as is common in this situation) is four fold increase in pH since the pH scale is logarithmic.
Reef aquarists should routinely monitor the alkalinity content of their aquaria as it is important for a number of reasons. Alkalinity acts as a buffer against downward shifts in pH which is important since the nitrification process destroys it. Carbonates and calcium are essential in formation of corals' skeletons. But what of its importance in acting as an inorganic carbon source for photosynthesis?
Effects of different colors of light on the photosynthesis rate.
The Effects of Different Colored Lights on Algal Oxygen ProductionPhotosynthesis Background Resources
To answer this question, experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that alkalinity concentrations could affect the rates of photosynthesis.
The Effect of Algae on the pH | Healthfully
A Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometer (Junior PAM, Heinz Walz GmbH, Effeltrich, Germany) with a fiber optic cord measured the relative rate of photosynthesis (relative electron transport rate, or rETR) of the coral's zooxanthellae under conditions of low, natural, slightly elevated, and high alkalinity. Alkalinity concentrations were adjusted upwards with a commercially available buffer (Reef Builder, Seachem Laboratories, Madison, Georgia, USA.) Alkalinity was measured with a colorimeter (Alkalinity Checker HI755, Hanna Instruments, Woonsocket, Rhode Island, USA.) and doubled checked initially by titration to a pH of 4.2 through use of a commercially available titrant (1.6N sulfuric acid) and a digital titrator (Hach, Loveland, Colorado, USA.)
Figure 1. Rates of photosynthesis (expressed as relative electron transport rates) of zooxanthellae within a coral under various alkalinity concentrations. For those preferring alkalinity reported as dKH, 53 ppm = 2.968 dKH; 114 = 6.384; 155 = 8.68 and 215 = 12.04.
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Plant Energy Transformations-Photosynthesis - …
Liebig's Law states that photosynthesis is controlled by not the concentration of the most abundant nutrient, but by the supply of the least - the weakest link will define the rate of photosynthesis. This fact is well recognized by freshwater planted enthusiasts and nutrient additions are routinely made to prevent the general plant ailment known as chlorosis. As such, we are the master of the microenvironment we have created.
Photosynthesis Science Fair Projects and Experiments
The result of these experiments demonstrated that the rate of photosynthesis could be boosted by about 29% by increasing alkalinity from a 'normal' level (6.4 dKH) to an elevated level (~12 dKH.)
Optimal Conditions for Algae Growth
hotosynthesis is the link between inorganic and organic worlds, and the importance of contributions made by zooxanthellae in maintaining health of photosynthetic corals is well known. We also know that rates of photosynthesis are dependent upon the amount of light, its spectral quality, as well as a supply of nutrients (for terrestrial plants, 'nutrient' is generally defined as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus with 'micronutrients' described as iron, copper, and a host of others.) Though not listed as such, inorganic carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) is an important nutrient in that it is necessary for plant growth and production of simple sugar. In marine aquaria, nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are usually in such supply that means of removing them are often necessary. Potassium, with a concentration of about 400 mg/L, is also in good supply, and micronutrients might be added or replenished through feeding or water changes. But what of carbon? While it is true that some carbon dioxide may be present in an aquarium, and corals' respired CO2 can meet some of photosynthesis' carbon demand, some of the carbon used by at least some zooxanthellae will be provided by bicarbonate dissolved in the aquarium water.
Ammonia Toxicity and pH Changes - College of …
Use of bicarbonate as a source of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis might come as a surprise to some hobbyists. Although we think of corals as relatively simple creatures, the biochemistry involved in their life processes can be anything but uncomplicated. Some of the steps involved in the use of bicarbonate in photosynthesis are as follows:
pH of Water - Environmental Measurement Systems
As we can see, this enzyme could be useful in both zooxanthellae photosynthetic processes and coral skeleton calcification. Bicarbonate does not pass easily through cell walls but carbon dioxide does, hence an external CA could convert bicarbonate to carbon dioxide to allow easy passage. Once inside the cell, CA converts carbon dioxide back to bicarbonate to prevent back-diffusion. Bicarbonate Active Transport (BAT; see below) carries bicarbonate through the mesoglea where it once again is converted to carbon dioxide by CA. CO2 is then utilized by zooxanthellae. See Figure 2.
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