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Partition of the total salt affected land in saline and sodic area

In the oceans most surface water is separated from bottom water by a thermocline (seasonal in temperature and marginal polar regions, constant in tropics) which means that once surface nutrients get used up (by the plants there) they become a limiting factor for the growth of new plants.

(Saline-sodic soils or saline-alkali, have both high ESP and EC.)

The biggest problem with chlorine as a sanitiser in swimming pools is that it breaks down and dissipates very easily under the sun's radiation. This can be fixed by adding cyanuric acid. Cyanuric acid (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triol) is used as a "stabilizer" for chlorine in swimming pools and stops it breaking down so quickly in sunlight. On a bright sunny day, nearly all of the chlorine in a pool can be lost in less than two hours unless a stabilizer (like cyanuric acid) is present. The addition of about 30 mg/L (ppm) cyanuric acid to swimming pool water reduces destruction of the free chlorine by sunlight. In the stabilization process, a portion of the chlorine residual is temporarily bonded to the cyanuric acid molecule which protects the chlorine from the destructive effects of sunlight. The nature of this bond is such that the chlorine continues to be released as long as a demand exists.

(1967) The effect of N source on the yield of various crop plants.

(1958) Effect of certain chemicals in water on the flavor of brewed coffee.

Thus, as ammonia levels in some waters are often similar to those shown to cause chronic effects in some fish, it would appear that these animals are at risk.

Terrestrial plants show a susceptibility to reduced growth and reduced vitality, when exposed to levels as low as 75 µg NH3/m3 in the atmosphere.

(1978) The effects of ammonium in water on Potamageton lucens.

Effects on respiration and on the performance of broilers and replacement growing stock.

Pokkali type of rice varieties are highly salt-tolerant and commonly grows in coastal areas of Kerala State, India. It is a traditional, tall, susceptible to lodging, photoperiod-sensitive rice variety with low tillering and long, broad, dark, and droopy leaves. It has red pericarp and poor grain quality. It is highly tolerant of salinity but yielding ability is low. Pokkali was subjected to cell culture for induction of somaclonal variation. Somaclonal variants of Pokkali with improved agronomic traits were identified. The variant isolated (TCCP 266-2-49-B-B-3) had desirable levels of all the characteristics tested. Its level of tolerance for salinity remains as high as the donor. It has vigorous growth and, unlike the parent Pokkali, is semi-dwarf, a trait essential in increasing the yield potential without lodging. The variant had white pericarp which is a distinct advantage. There was also improvement in cooked rice quality, with the semi-dwarf variant having medium consistency. These characteristics make the somaclonal variant TCCP 266-2-49-B-B-3 superior to Pokkali as a donor of salt tolerance in hybridization programs. It has become a popular donor parent and has produced new high-yielding salinity-tolerant lines, some of which were already released as varieties.

Development of a promising salinity-tolerant line through hybridization and selection procedure could take atleast 8-10 years where more than one rice crop can be taken in a year, while it takes much more time where only one crop per year is grown. This period could be substantially reduced by applying the F1 anther culture technique. In 1996, some high-yielding salt-tolerant anther culture-derived lines were generated at IRRI. It only took 3 years for the tolerant lines to be isolated. These AC-derived lines were IR51500-AC11-1, IR51500-AC17, IR51485-AC6534-4, IR72132-AC6-1, IR69997-AC1, IR69997-AC2, IR69997-AC3, and IR69997-AC4. IR51500-AC11-1 was released as a salt-tolerant variety in the Philippines with the name PSBRc50 or “Bicol”. This is the first time for anther culture-derived lines from indica-indica cross to be released as a variety and also the first to be recommended for cultivation in adverse environments. IR51500-AC17 and IR51485-AC6534-4, named CSR21 and CSR28, respectively, were also identified as tolerant rice varieties in India.

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The Effect of Salinity on Photosynthesis - …

Crosses are made between the groups (rather than within the groups) possessing contrasting physiological traits like tissue tolerance, Na exclusion, K uptake and Cl exclusion to pyramid the genes governing or contributing for salinity tolerance into one agronomically superior background. The ideal high yielding salinity tolerant variety should posses following traits:

The Effect of Salinity on Photosynthesis | Sciencing

The recombination strategy includes the i) grouping of the genotypes based on the predominant inherent physiological mechanism responsible for salinity tolerance, ii) inter-mating of the genotypes with high degree of expression of the contrasting salinity tolerance mechanism, and iii) identifying / screening of the recombinants for pooling of the mechanisms to enhance the further level of salt tolerance.

Salinity adversely affects plant growth ..

Identification of molecular markers tightly linked to salt tolerant genes can serve as land marks for the physical localization of such genes facilitating marker assisted selection (MAS). Many QTLs have been identified in rice for salinity tolerance / contributing traits and majority of them have been reported on chromosome 1. Major one of them are saltol (Gregorio et al, 2002; Bonilla et al, 1998), QNa for Na uptake (Flowers, et al., 2000), QTL for Na+ uptake, K+ concentration and Na /K ratio (Koyama et al, 2001); SKC1 or OsHKT8, RNTQ1, SDS1 (Lin et al, 2003, Ren et al, 2005); Na+ and Cl- transport in stem (Ammar, 2004) and qST1 (Lee et al, 2005) . There are more reports of other big-effect QTLs on other chromosomes for the contributing traits and have been reported on Chromosomes 3, 4, 10 and 12 (Glenn, 1997); chromosomes 4, 6 and 9 (Flowers et al, 2000); chromosomes 4, 6 and 9 (Koyama et al, 2001); Chromosomes 4, 6, 7 and 9 (Lin et al, 2004); Chromosomes 2, 3, 8, and 9 (Ammar, 2004); Chromosomes 3 (Lee et al, 2006) and Chromosome 8 and 10 (Islam et al, 2006). Molecular markers based approach (MAS) has enormous potential to be used as reliable tool to the breeders for the effective,

Effects of salt stress on basic processes of photosynthesis

Major research program on MAS at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) are concentrated on introgressing Sub1 and Saltol QTLs for submergence and salinity tolerance respectively into the improved germplasm or adapted varieties. The major QTL for salinity tolerance i.e. Saltol is being transferred to the improved background as well as adapted rice varieties. Saltol located on chromosome 1, is linked with SSR markers like RM 8094, RM 493 and RM 3412 . However, these markers are population specific which limits the scope of the MAS application across the diverse material. Flowers et al. (2000), while reporting the putative AFLP markers for ion transport and selectivity for salinity tolerance from a custom made mapping population of rice, also cautioned against any expectation of general applicability of markers for these physiological traits.

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