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The "Greenhouse Effect" Hypothesis

Null hypothesis- SCL approach will have no effect on how primary school students learn English skills compared to when they’re taught using a teacher-centered approach

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon

for obese patients have a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of 15. A researcher thinks that a diet high in raw cornstarch will have a positive or negative effect on blood glucose levels. A sample of 30 patients who have tried the raw cornstarch diet have a mean glucose level of 140. Test the hypothesis that the raw cornstarch had an effect.

Facial feedback hypothesis - Wikipedia


The main purpose of statistics is to test a hypothesis. For example, you might run an experiment and find that a certain drug is effective at treating headaches. But if you can’t repeat that experiment, no one will take your results seriously. A good example of this was the discovery, which petered into obscurity because no one was able to duplicate the results.

The cleaved C-terminal fragment of tLivin was ananti-apoptotic factor. Because the RING finger of XIAP mediatedubiquitination of caspases, we hypothesized the C-terminus oftLivin had anti-apoptotic function. To confirm this hypothesis, wetransfected A549 cells with a construct expressing the C-terminusof tLivin (amino acids 221–280, livC) fused with GFP and found itcould antagonize the apoptotic effect of cisplatin (). We also observed a significantdecrease in the expression intensity of GFP, which was fused to theN-terminus of livC (). Tofurther explore the possible mechanism for this effect of livC, thecell lysates were probed with a panel of antibodies. We found theprotein content of caspase-3 decreased in cells transfected withlivC, both of full-length and cleaved active form of caspase-3(). These data may help toexplain the anti-apoptotic effect of livC in cells.

Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis

The hypothesis of the "greenhouse effect" despite being more than 150 years old has never and will never achieve the status of a testable theory.

In the second experiment, you are going to put human volunteers with high blood pressure on a strict low-salt diet and see how much their blood pressure goes down. Everyone will be confined to a hospital for a month and fed either a normal diet, or the same foods with half as much salt. For this experiment, you wouldn't be very interested in the P value, as based on prior research in animals and humans, you are already quite certain that reducing salt intake will lower blood pressure; you're pretty sure that the null hypothesis that "Salt intake has no effect on blood pressure" is false. Instead, you are very interested to know how much the blood pressure goes down. Reducing salt intake in half is a big deal, and if it only reduces blood pressure by 1 mm Hg, the tiny gain in life expectancy wouldn't be worth a lifetime of bland food and obsessive label-reading. If it reduces blood pressure by 20 mm with a confidence interval of ±5 mm, it might be worth it. So you should estimate the effect size (the difference in blood pressure between the diets) and the confidence interval on the difference.

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Welcome to the Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis

Here are three experiments to illustrate when the different approaches to statistics are appropriate. In the first experiment, you are testing a plant extract on rabbits to see if it will lower their blood pressure. You already know that the plant extract is a diuretic (makes the rabbits pee more) and you already know that diuretics tend to lower blood pressure, so you think there's a good chance it will work. If it does work, you'll do more low-cost animal tests on it before you do expensive, potentially risky human trials. Your prior expectation is that the null hypothesis (that the plant extract has no effect) has a good chance of being false, and the cost of a false positive is fairly low. So you should do frequentist hypothesis testing, with a significance level of 0.05.

Effect sizes - University of Bath

A related criticism is that a significant rejection of a null hypothesis might not be biologically meaningful, if the difference is too small to matter. For example, in the chicken-sex experiment, having a treatment that produced 49.9% male chicks might be significantly different from 50%, but it wouldn't be enough to make farmers want to buy your treatment. These critics say you should estimate the effect size and put a on it, not estimate a P value. So the goal of your chicken-sex experiment should not be to say "Chocolate gives a proportion of males that is significantly less than 50% (P=0.015)" but to say "Chocolate produced 36.1% males with a 95% confidence interval of 25.9 to 47.4%." For the chicken-feet experiment, you would say something like "The difference between males and females in mean foot size is 2.45 mm, with a confidence interval on the difference of ±1.98 mm."

Effect Size Calculators - Hong Kong Polytechnic University

The significance level (also known as the "critical value" or "alpha") you should use depends on the costs of different kinds of errors. With a significance level of 0.05, you have a 5% chance of rejecting the null hypothesis, even if it is true. If you try 100 different treatments on your chickens, and none of them really change the sex ratio, 5% of your experiments will give you data that are significantly different from a 1:1 sex ratio, just by chance. In other words, 5% of your experiments will give you a false positive. If you use a higher significance level than the conventional 0.05, such as 0.10, you will increase your chance of a false positive to 0.10 (therefore increasing your chance of an embarrassingly wrong conclusion), but you will also decrease your chance of a false negative (increasing your chance of detecting a subtle effect). If you use a lower significance level than the conventional 0.05, such as 0.01, you decrease your chance of an embarrassing false positive, but you also make it less likely that you'll detect a real deviation from the null hypothesis if there is one.

Null Hypothesis (1 of 4) - David Lane

Im having a hard time answer a problem. The genetics and IV I situate conduct a clinical trial of the YOSORT method designed to increase the probability of a boy and 239 of them were Boyd’s. Use a 0.01 significance level to test the claim that the YOSORT method is effective in increasing the like hood that a baby will be a boy . I have to identify the null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, test status is, p-value or critical value .

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