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PHD THESIS SUMMARY: The political economy of urban ...
Political Economy Senior Thesis - Hillsdale College Social Sciences Political Economy Senior Thesis Economics 575.
Essays In The History Of Heterodox Political Economy Bringing heterodox recipes to policymakers: the case of Innovative economic ...
Essays in the History of Heterodox Political Economyessays on the ...
Carbon prices – typically imposed as taxes or through a cap-and-trade system – tackle the greenhouse gas market failure head on. They tax an “economic bad” and raise revenue for governments. With smart recycling of revenues they also have the benefit of being relatively non-distortionary in the short run and providing an effective signal to reallocate resources over the medium- to long-term. A share of the revenues should be prioritised to offset impacts on low-income households. A recent World Bank report shows that about 40 countries and over 20 sub-national jurisdictions now apply or have scheduled to apply carbon pricing through a carbon tax or emissions trading scheme (ETS). A further 26 countries or jurisdictions are considering carbon pricing. Together these schemes cover around 12% of global emissions.
A good place to start is a reassessment of the basis of fossil fuel subsidies – essentially negative carbon prices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), for example, has estimated the value of support for fossil fuel production and consumption in its member countries at US$55–90 billion per year in 2005–2011, mostly in the form of tax breaks for consumption. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has estimated fossil fuel consumption subsidies in emerging and developing countries at around US$540 billion in 2012. The majority of these were for energy consumption in net fossil fuel-exporting countries (Figure 11).
Political Economy and Christian Theology Since the ...
The large investments to be made in the next 15 years in these three systems make this a critical time for defining countries’ economic trajectories. Many of these investments will involve capital assets that last three to four decades or longer. They will thus play a key role in shaping the performance of the global economy not just in the next 15 years, but for the next half-century. The carbon-intensity of those investments, meanwhile, will largely determine the scale of future climate risk.
The Commission’s work has focused on these three systems and on the drivers of change that are crucial to transforming them. But those drivers of change also have a broader role to play across the economy. For example, innovations in products and processes are already transforming the economic and emissions performance of energy-intensive process industries such as steel, aluminium, cement and chemicals, and will be central to future growth and emissions reduction.
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The World Bank, n.d. Global Economic Monitor (GEM) Commodities.
Even in the short term (the next five years), there are multiple opportunities to advance both economic and climate objectives by correcting market failures and policy distortions. No economy today is perfectly efficient, and many efforts to make key resources more affordable – such as by subsidising fossil fuels, water or fertilisers – have the unintended consequence of promoting inefficiency and waste. Policies to support established businesses may stifle competition from low-carbon innovators. Lack of coordination across levels of government and between neighbouring communities can lead to scattered development and sprawl, increasing the cost of infrastructure and public service delivery. Better policy design can correct these problems, increasing economic efficiency while lowering GHG emissions.
The World Bank, n.d. Global Economic Monitor (GEM) Commodities.
Of course, there are also many trade-offs. There are many immediate ways to achieve strong growth with higher emissions. Not all climate policies are “win-win”. The low-carbon transition will have winners and losers, and these costs will have to be faced and managed, as we discuss in more detail below. But short-term policies which weaken the prospects for stronger economic performance in the medium and long term also have real costs which should be properly acknowledged. Over time, growing climate change impacts will disrupt industry, farms and communities, with disproportionate harm to low-income countries and people, and require even greater government intervention. In such a context, it is unwise to be short-sighted.
The Experience Economy - Wikipedia
The evidence for these conclusions has been accumulating over the last decade. The theoretical basis for them has been known for some time. What is new is the practical experience around the world. National and local governments as well as businesses that have adopted lower-carbon strategies and policies have found them associated with economic performance as good as or better than their high-carbon peers’. Much of this has been driven by recent technological advances. The decoupling of growth from carbon emissions in some of the best-performing economies, both in Northern Europe and in North America, demonstrates the gains that can be made in incomes, jobs, rates of innovation and profits from a low-carbon, resource-efficient model of growth.
The term Experience Economy was first used in a 1998 article by B
The conclusion that growth and climate goals can be mutually reinforcing is not surprising in the long run, beyond 15 years ahead. As the impacts of climate change grow larger, the potential harm to economies will increase. What this report shows, however, is that low-carbon policies can also generate strong growth in the medium term (5–15 years), provided that governments make the necessary policy and investment choices. Building more compact cities with good public transport, for example, not only reduces GHGs, but also allows people to move faster and more efficiently from home, to jobs, to shops and services; it reduces traffic congestion and air pollution, and it provides new business opportunities around transport hubs. Harnessing domestic renewable energy resources can boost energy security and reduce trade deficits. There is growing evidence that clean-tech R&D has particularly high spillover benefits, comparable to those from robotics, information technology (IT) and nanotechnologies.
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