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What is the economic importance of protozoans

Rather than rely on chemicals in the medium to produce an increase in cell size, one could use mutagenic agents in the hope that a mutant might appear which had all the known desirable cultural features along with an increased cell size. Many people have induced mutations of various kinds in Some have used radiation, X-rays and ultra-violet; and there have been pigment mutants produced by treatment with streptomycin. But it seems that none ofthe mutants investigated had enhanced capabilities of growth; many in fact could not be investigated further since the pigment systems seemed to be the most easily affected metabolic areas. Tugarinov said in relation to streptomycin-produced mutants that they were all without exception characterised by the entire absence or by a very low content of chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’.(139) has been treated with N-nitrosomethylurea; and this has produced lethal mutants or induced auxotrophic mutants of various kinds which would be useless for industrial purposes because of the appearance of this new requirement for growth factors. (whatever species this was) can claim special mention since it has been subjected to a radiation dose of two megarads; yet a small percentage of cells survived which after three weeks grew at the original rate.(57) However, they were bigger although it is not known if the larger cell size was due to polyploidy or just merely polysomy.

75. , 1965: The Biological and Economic Importance of Algae. Part I. Tuatara 13 (2): 90-104.

Centrifugation has been the harvesting method used in all the preliminary experimental work and pilot-plant investigations, and it is an easy matter to centrifuge out the algal cells. This is a satisfactory method on a laboratory and pilot-plant scale but not on an industrial scale. ‘The cost of a very high speed centrifuge increases rapidly with the increased size that is necessary to handle large volumes of liquid. Growing the culture at as high a density as possible will decrease the cost of centrifuging. Even for a dense suspension, it may be economical to use two centrifuges in series. The first one, large enough to handle the whole flow, could operate at a moderate speed to give partial separation. The concentrated material from this centrifuge could then be separated completely by a smaller machine operated at a higher speed.’(11)

Economic importance of Algae | Science Education

36. Daniels, F., 1951: The Efficiency of Biological Photosynthesis. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 79 (4): 188-195.

The variation in the quantity of diadinoxanthin in in response to the use of ‘neon’ light compared with the ordinary white light led these workers to postulate that products of probable functional importance may be varied a great deal in response to changes in external or environmental conditions. ‘By careful control of external conditions it may become possible to vary at will the chemical products of nature's greatest factory, the green part of plants.’(21)

One of the features about photosynthetic pigment analysis is that not much pigment solution is need for characteristation because chromatography and visible light absorption spectroscopy are so sensitive and definitive in the identification of pigments. In algae these pigments would be the most highly coloured compounds whereas fats, carbohydrates and other chemicals of metabolic significance present in amounts much greater than pigments would be colourless for the most part. Thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques had not even been thought of in those days; and consequently one had to rely more on ‘bucket chemistry’ and process large amounts of raw material if colourless compounds were to be isolated and characterised. Hence the statement, ‘For the investigations on other components of these plants, larger quantities of material were required, especially because it was desired to determine the influence of certain environmental factors on the production of particular compounds… . Although a number of micro-organisms, including some diatoms, were cultured in large amounts, special attention was given to , because we had had more experience with this organism than with any of the others and the effects in changes of environmental conditions could be more rapidly worked out with this one organism. Also, the methods ofchemical analysis which were to be applied to these algal investigations could be more satisfactorily tested on this material than on any other which had thus far been cultured.’(22)

Q&A related to Economic Importance Of Plants

46. Emerson, R., and Lewis, C. M., 1939: Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Photosynthesis. Am. J. Bot. 26 (10): 808-822.

Assuming an efficiency in photosynthesis of about 33% (8 photons — see above, but it could be a lower efficiency), approximately 1/2 X 1/3 X (21 X 106) kilocals could be stored by plants, i.e. about 3.5 X 106 kilocals/acre/day under conditions for growth.

Continuous culture raised many uncertainties. For this reason, a small pilot plant was set up in a laboratory using artificial light and a similar one was set up in the open for study under sunlight. In these, light, temperature, aeration, total volume and population density were controlled. A sterile medium was quite an achievement because up till now people had mainly used the batch system of growth. Such a method of culturing is tolerably easy compared with the organisation of a sterile continuous system. One could not extrapolate directly the parameters of batch-growing to continuous cultures and many variables had to be explored, such as optimum temperatures, composition of culture solution, rate and composition of aeration systems, optimum population density, artificial light versus sunlight.

About half the solar radiation reaching the soil is infra-red and therefore of no use in photosynthesis.
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Economic Importance of Fungi | Botany - Biology …

Again Emerson featured in the refutation of Warburg's work. Emerson and Lewis at the Carnegie Institution at Stanford University investigated exhaustively the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis and always got a figure of double that found by Warburg and Negelein.(46) The discrepancy between the two sets of results sparked off much research, and techniques other than manometric were used to try to resolve this dilemma. These included micro-gas analysis of oxygen and carbon dioxide; measurement of oxygen by chemical titration or by polarographic methods; measuring unused heat of radiation with micro-photocalorimeters; measuring calorimetrically the difference in the heating of a leaf when photosynthesising and when not doing so. The methods of culture, the influence of nutrients and traces of various elements, and the age of the algae were varied over wide ranges; but the empirical maximum efficiency was nearly always between 8 to 10 photons per molecule of carbon dioxide reacting.(36)

In this article we will discuss about the economic importance of ..

Warburg and Negelein's paper was also accepted for many years; but in the end the high efficiency they purported to show became too much of a straitjacket. People could not reconcile the then current chemical hypothesis about photosynthesis with this high quantum efficiency; and further-an aspect which was even more serious and of even greater importance-most workers were unable in the main to duplicate this result. Therefore the value of the original results in establishing the efficiency of the light reaction of photosynthesis came under a pall of doubt. Consequently various groups of investigators in America began a re-examination of Warburg and Negelein's experimental technique and results - but nearly always using as their experimental plant.

is a most important raw material for plant photosynthesis in ..

So, as a result of Warburg's experiments in photosynthesis and particularly because of the controversy they kindled (especially the one on quantum efficiency), a lot of people got to know a lot of information about . And this was not the only way in which chemists and physiologists became aware of this alga.

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