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_____ What organelles does photosynthesis take ..

On a deeper level, we can also think about where photosynthesis is localized within the cell: the chloroplast. During the light-dependent reactions, the pigments in Photosystems I and II absorb photons and transfer that energy through the electron transport chain. The localization of these reaction centers in the thylakoid membrane creates an environment well suited for easy energy transfer. Each carrier molecule is nearby, which makes energy transfer more efficient. Structure and function working together. Isn't that sweet?

What Is a Carbohydrate Found in a Cell Wall of Plant Cells?

Making an aquarium or a terrarium is not a complicated thing. Learning to build them isvery useful for those who are fond of breeding animals, observing them, taking picturesand movies. You can use an aquarium to breed fish, amphibians, protists, algae, artemia,shrimps, etc. You can use a terrarium to breed many species of animals, but avoid raisingspecies which suffer in captivity. Aquaria and terrariums can be used also to take picturesof animals temporarily taken from their environment.
In their simpler form, acquaria and terrariums are simple glass boxes enclosed on 5 sidesand which can be provided with a lid. This simple container is suitable to breedamphibians and as a terrarium. Aquaria for fish require a compartment for a filter, a pumpfor water circulation, another pump for air, a thermostat, lighting, etc. We'll deal ofthe simplest aquaria.
How you can build an aquarium? In first you have to make a drawing. The bottom glass hasto be surrounded by the other four walls and it has to be the thickest. The thickness ofthe plates has to be proportioned to the size of the aquarium. Avoid building too wide,and more importantly, too high an aquarium. The pressure of the water increases and couldunglue the plates. After having drawn the acquarium you have to cut the glass plates bymeans of a glasscutter. To do this keep the glasscutter vertical and push down with forcewhile you move it along a ruler. This operation require practice, so use some scrap piecesuntil you have the necessary manual ability. It is important you use a sharp glasscutter,kept in oil to avoid rust. Before gluing the slabs, you have to round off the edges withsandpaper in order to remove their sharp edges. With some acetone, clean the slabs wherethe silicone rubber will be deposited. As the acetone is toxic, work outdoor or in a wellventilate piece. Use high quality transparent silicone. To keep the internal walls free ofexcessive glue, on the slabs and near the gluing positions, place stripes of sticking tape(figure 6). When the silicone is cured, remove these stripes and the excess glue.
: handling and cutting glass is a dangerousoperation which has to be made only by adult people wearing gloves and a heavy apron. Away to elegantly solve this problem is to order plates. A hardware or building supplystore can help. Never move aquaria and terrariums containing water or stones, move them onlywhen they are empty. Do not place aquaria in positions where a water leak could damagesomething below them, for example over electrical devices or sockets, and books. Onlyadults should handle glass-made aquaria or terrariums. Give children transparent plastictanks. Do not keep dangerous or rare organisms. Do not breed and most important, do notfree species which do not belong to your environment! Do not free sick animals or plants.
Building Tanks
Reef Aquarium Guide
CyberAqua (list of links)
Internet keywords: aquarium glass homemade.

How does photosynthesis help maintain homeostasis

Sage TL and Sage RF (2009) The functional anatomy of rice leaves: implications for refixation of photorespiratory CO2 and efforts to engineer C4 photosynthesis into rice. Plant and Cell Physiology 50: 756–772.

A major role of leaf mesophyll cells is to contain large populations of chloroplasts, which carry out photosynthetic carbon assimilation facilitating plant growth.

Chloroplasts - the sites of photosynthesis in a plant cell

Cells of the mesophyll make up the bulk of internal leaf tissue and are the major site of photosynthesis in a plant by virtue of containing large populations of chloroplast organelles. The differentiation of the mesophyll and its coordinated expansion is important to leaf function because light interception by chloroplasts and gas exchange in the internal airspaces of the leaf are crucial to optimise rates of photosynthesis. In dicotyledonous leaves there are two types of mesophyll cell; palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll. Palisade mesophyll cells are elongate and form a layer beneath the upper epidermis, whereas spongy mesophyll cells are internal to the lower epidermis. Mesophyll cells in monocotyledonous leaves are often highly lobed. All mesophyll cells contain large populations of chloroplasts, which enable the leaf to carry out photosynthetic carbon assimilation.

Photosynthesis is a process that shows how structure and function unite as one in biology. We can first think about the structure at the level of the plant itself, and how the location of photosynthesis is important for its function. The plant optimizes where it conducts photosynthesis; that is, photosynthesis does not occur in every cell in every plant. Chloroplasts are mostly localized in the leaves, primarily in a special type of cell called a mesophyll cell. In a special type of plant called C4 plants, the light-dependent and light-independent cells are separated, with the light-dependent reactions occurring in the mesophyll cells, and the light-independent reactions occurring in the bundle sheath cells. This spatial separation of photosynthesis decreases the amount of photorespiration that occurs because it limits the exposure of these cells to O2.

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First, you would notice the cell wall that surrounds the plant cell

Plants get carbon dioxide from the air through their leaves. The carbon dioxide diffuses through small holes in the underside of the leaf called stomata. (singular: stoma. plural: stomata)

The lower part of the leaf has loose-fitting cells, to allow carbon dioxide to reach the other cells in the leaf. This also allows the oxygen produced in photosynthesis to leave the leaf easily.




Carbon dioxide is present in the air we breathe, at very low concentrations. Even though it forms about .04% of the air, it is a needed factor in light-independent photosynthesis.

In higher concentrations, more carbon is incorporated into carbohydrate, therefore increasing the rate of photosynthesis in light-independent reactions.

Osmosis in Plants: What Does it Mean

A cell is the basic unit of life. There are two uniquely formed and often studied cell types. They both have a defined nucleus, cell membrane, and are protected by cytoplasm. Plant cell walls are designed for the process of photosynthesis. Plant cells chloroplasts, a large vacuole, and a thick cell wall. Animal cells lack a cell wall and chloroplasts.

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