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Dinoflagellate algae - Gpedia, Your Encyclopedia

Chlorophylls absorb blue and red light and carotenoids absorb blue-green light , but green and yellow light are not effectively absorbed by photosynthetic pigments in plants; therefore, light of these colors is either reflected by leaves or passes through the leaves.

Marine phytoplankton are mainly comprised of microalgae known as dinoflagellates ..

The ability for eukaryotes to carry out photosynthesis was made possible by one or more symbiotic associations between heterotrophic eukaryotes and photosynthetic prokaryotes (or their descendents). There were several primary symbioses between eukaryotes and blue green algae. In one lineage, the photosynthetic organism lost much of its genetic independence and became functionally and genetically integrated as chloroplasts within the host cell. Modern chloroplasts, also called plastids, are bounded by two or more membranes, and most usually lie free in the cytoplasm, but in some cases they may be located within a fold of the nuclear envelope, or may be associated with the cytoplasm and residual nucleus of a eukaryotic endosybiont. The descendents of some of these primary plastids have gone on to form further associations. At least two types of protists (chloroarachniophytes and cryptomonads) have acquired 'plastids' by forming symbioses with eukaryotic algae. This are referred to as secondary symbioses.

Problem Dinoflagellates and pH by Randy Holmes …

Occasionally, photosynthetic organisms are found where the chloroplast has retained a little more of the original cyanobacterial features.

Other pigments are used indirectly as accessory pigments. Some have oxidative abilities and are used in the electron transport chains that are part of both the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. Some even have duplicate functions, adding other levels of function to the photosynthetic cell. For example, can be present as an accessory pigment in peridinin-containing species, while in some others, it may replace peridinin. Fucoxanthin is a common carotenoid primarily in diatoms and dinoflagellates.

Then there’s this business of photosynthesis — making energy from the sun. Different lineages of dinoflagellates appear to have acquired this ability several times independently. But it isn’t because they’ve evolved photosynthesis over and over again. Instead, they have a strange knack for engulfing other photosynthetic organisms and taking over their chloroplasts — the entities that actually do the work of transforming sunbeams into energy. To put it in context, in all of the rest of the tree of life, such engulfments are thought to have happened between three and six times. In dinoflagellates, it’s happened five times at least. Why are they so good at it? No one knows.

Those plastids that contain chlorophyll can carry out photosynthesis

Biotechnology science fair project to investigate the bioluminescence of dinoflagellates

It should be emphasized that plants respire just like any other higher organism, and that during the day this respiration is masked by a higher rate of photosynthesis.

One of the most impressive demonstrations of bioluminescence is also the easiest. Dinoflagellates, the most common sources of bioluminescence at the sea surface, are readily grown in the laboratory. They produce bright bioluminescence upon agitation. The following instructions describe how to obtain dinoflagellate cultures and grow them at home, school, or laboratory. Then check out the Web page on .

Effects of light intensity on photosynthesis and dark respiration in six ..
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Science Experiments on Environmental Education and Biology

Dinoflagellates are typically unicellular, free-swimming, biflagellate organisms that constitute an important component of freshwater, brackish and marine phytoplanktonic communities. There are, however, a number of non-motile forms including amoeboid, coccoid, palmelloid and filamentous types. Most have some form of photosynthesis, but some are saprophytic (feeding on decayed organic matter), symbiotic, or holozoic (feeding like an animal by ingesting solid food particles). Some are highly modified parasites.

Photosynthetic Efficiencies of LEDs: Results of Short …

Not all dinoflagellates are so helpful, however. Pick up a copy of the journal Harmful Algae, and you’ll find plenty of articles about how dangerous some dinoflagellates can be. Many species make powerful nerve poisons; these can become concentrated in the flesh of fish and shellfish, and harm anyone who happens to eat the contaminated animals. Two of the most notorious syndromes caused by dinoflagellates are ciguatera fish poisoning and paralytic shellfish poisoning; both can make you very ill, and may even kill you.

algal & fungal protist notes b1 - Biology Junction

"Dinoflagellates have much of the same nutritional requirements as other microalgae.... ...The use of phosphate absorbing medium has resulted in their eradication... should reduce additions of trace elements."

Chlorophyta (green Algae):7000 species

any dinoflagellates are photosynthetic and are among the major primary producers of the phytoplankton along with diatoms. This form of energy acquisition allows some 50% of dinoflagellates to be considered , although all but a few species are for vitamin B, thiamin and biotin (reviewed in Provasoli and Carlucci, 1974). Dinoflagellates are generally described as , although some species may resemble under certain conditions, and dinoflagellates, in general, may show some characteristics of both types. The difference between these types is whether or not three or four carbon sugars are produced and the enzymes used to fix CO.

Still other dinoflagellates can do both

Chloroplasts are membrane bound organelles found within photosynthetic organisms that are the primary sites of light harvesting and photosynthesis, and contain most of the photosynthetic pigments. The chloroplasts found in red and green algae are known to have evolved from a symbiosis between a cyanobacterium and a eukaryotic cell more than one billion years ago. The primary light absorbing pigments in most plant chloroplasts are the chlorophylls. Dinoflagellates have both chlorophyll (chl-) and chlorophyll (chl-) whereas most plants and green algae contain mostly clorophyll and, to a lesser degree chl-. Chlorophylls and also exist in algae, the former mainly in some red algae. While some other organisms besides dinoflagellates contain chl-, this pigment suggests a larger evolutionary disparity between dinoflagellates and most other "phytoplankton." It also confers an advantage in that the photosynthetic organisms containing multiple chlorophylls are able to effectively harvest light energy from a broader range of wavelengths of light. In the case of chl-, more common in green algae, the spectrum is shifted towards the longer wavelengths into the green spectrum. Chl- lacks as great a peak in the red spectrum as chl-, and it might be surmised that having chl- would be more advantageous to dinoflagellates, since less competition for light is the primary reason to harbor various pigments. However, it is the coupling of chlorophylls with peridinin, a broad band light harvesting pigment, that gives dinoflagellates a distinct advantage over other phytoplankton. Chlorophylls are the pigments largely responsible for green coloration in plants. The primary absorption peaks are at 430nm and 663nm, and 434nm and 666nm for chl- and chl-, respectively, corresponding to the blue and red areas of the spectrum. Because dinoflagellate chloroplasts are unusually contained by three membranes, as opposed to a normal one or two, it is believed that they likely have evolved a tertiary with a that contains the additional photosynthetic pigment complex of (Morden and Sherwood 2002). The orange-red peridinin pigment absorbs very broadly, with a maximum at around 480nm and another small shoulder at 520nm. The combined units of carotenoid-chlorophyll-protein complexes (PCP complex) consisting mainly of peridinin, chlorophyll , and one of 12 to 20 proteins, form multiple complexes where, interestingly, the interaction of chlorophyll with the peridinin protein shifts the absorption peaks of chl- upwards about 10nm.

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