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The intermediate disturbance hypothesis ..

IT IS OFTEN STATED in the literature that LSD was discovered by chance. The following account will show that LSD was not the fruit of a chance discovery, but the outcome of a more complex process that had its beginnings in a definite concept, and was followed up by appropriate experiments, during the course of which a chance observation served to trigger off a planned investigation, which then led to the actual discovery. Such a train of events often underlies what is said to be a chance discovery.
I prepared lysergic acid diethylamide for the first time in 1938 as part of a systematic chemical and pharmacological investigation of partially synthetic amides of Iysergic acid in the Sandoz pharmaceutical-chemical research laboratories in Basle, headed at that time by Professor Arthur Stoll. Lysergic acid is the characteristic nucleus of the alkaloids of ergot and can be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of these alkaloids. Using a newly developed procedure, one had proved it possible to combine Iysergic acid with amines in peptide linkage. In this way, the specific oxytocic principle of ergot, namely Ergometrine, known in this country as ergonovine, was produced. This was the first partial synthesis of a natural ergot alkaloid, and by modifying the alkanolamine side chain of Ergometrine a new synthetic derivative, which we named Methergine, was obtained. In its pharmacological properties Methergine proved to be superior to the natural alkaloid, and today it is used throughout the world in obstetrics for the arrest of hemorrhage. Although interest centered mainly on oxytocic and hemostatic activity in these investigations, the new method of synthesis was also employed to prepare amides of Iysergic acid, which, on the basis of their chemical structure, might be expected to possess different pharmacological properties. Thus among other compounds, I synthesized the diethylamide of Iysergic acid with the intention of obtaining an analeptic. This compound might have been expected to possess analeptic properties because of its structural relationship with the well-known circulatory stimulant nikethamide.

 How could all this happen in what is supposedly the science-based, medical field of obesity?

Apparently, the research results they found with this analysis did not satisfy panel members. So instead, they began to cite Harvard’s Nurses Health Study as their rationale for lowering the weight categories.

IDH means Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis - All …

It seems doubtful the field of obesity can change without a revamping of murky past research.

Beehr (1995) considered the question of why so few studies have systematically examined the associations between work- related stress and substance abuse. He argued that such neglect may be due in part to the failure of researchers to find these associations. To this failure, one should add the well-known bias of periodicals against publishing research that reports null results. To illustrate the inconclusiveness of the evidence linking stress and substance abuse, consider two large-scale national samples of employees in the United States. The first, by French, Caplan and Van Harrison (1982), failed to find significant correlations between types of work-related stress and either smoking, drug use or on-the-job caffeine ingestion. The second, an earlier research study by Mangione and Quinn (1975), did report such associations.

The varying definitions of work-related stress have already been mentioned above. By way of illustration, consider the different conceptualizations of stress on the one hand as events and on the other as chronic demands at the workplace. These two approaches to stress measurement have seldom been combined in a single study designed to predict the sorts of behavioural outcome considered here. The same generalization is relevant to the combined use, in the same study, of family-related and work-related stress to predict any of these outcomes. Most of the studies referred to in this chapter were based on a cross-sectional design and employees’ self-reports on the behavioural outcome in question. In most of the research that concerned behavioural outcomes of work-related stress, the joint moderating or mediating roles of predisposing personality variables, like the Type A behaviour pattern or hardiness, and situational variables like social support and control, have hardly been investigated. Seldom have antecedent variables, like objectively measured job stress, been included in the research designs of the studies reviewed here. Finally, the research covered in this article employed divergent methodologies. Because of these limitations, a frequently encountered conclusion is that the evidence for work-related stress as a precursor of a behavioural outcome is inconclusive.

ACCORDING TO THE INTERMEDIATE DISTURBANCE HYPOTHESIS

Two particular themes have emerged in the contemporary research on socialization:

Various definitions of stress have been formulated since the concept was first named and described by Hans Selye (Selye 1960). Almost invariably these definitions have failed to capture what is perceived as the essence of the concept by a major proportion of stress researchers.

The failure to reach a common and generally acceptable definition may have several explanations; one of them may be that the concept has become so widespread and has been used in so many different situations and settings and by so many researchers, professionals and lay persons that to agree on a common definition is no longer possible. Another explanation is that there really is no empirical basis for a single common definition. The concept may be so diverse that one single process simply does not explain the whole phenomenon. One thing is clear - in order to examine the health effects of stress, the concept needs to include more than one component. Selye’s definition was concerned with the physiological fight or flight reaction in response to a threat or a challenge from the environment. Thus his definition involved only the individual physiological response. In the 1960s a strong interest arose in so-called life events, that is, major stressful experiences that occur in an individual’s life. The work by Holmes and Rahe (1967) nicely demonstrated that an accumulation of life events was harmful to health. These effects were found mostly in retrospective studies. To confirm the findings prospectively proved to be more difficult (Rahe 1988).

Current research indicates that carriers are lifelong and can go for a long time without symptoms even when they are capable of infecting others.
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Apr 30, 2009 · Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis ..

Most models of job satisfaction have been derived and tested using samples of white workers. When ethnic minority groups have been included, they have tended to be African-Americans, and potential effects due to ethnicity were often masked (Tuch and Martin 1991). Research that is available on African-American employees tends to yield significantly lower scores on overall job satisfaction in comparison to whites (Weaver 1978, 1980; Staines and Quinn 1979; Tuch and Martin 1991). Examining this difference, Tuch and Martin (1991) noted that the factors determining job satisfaction were basically the same but that African-Americans were less likely to have the situations that led to job satisfaction. More specifically, extrinsic rewards increase African-Americans’ job satisfaction, but African-Americans are disadvantaged relatively to whites on these variables. On the other hand, blue-collar incumbency and urban residence decrease job satisfaction for African-Americans but African-Americans are overrepresented in these areas. Wright, King and Berg (1985) found that organizational variables (i.e., job authority, qualifications for the position and a sense that advancement within the organization is possible) were the best predictors of job satisfaction in their sample of black female managers in keeping with previous research on primarily white samples.

Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis

An important focus of occupational stress research has been the relationship between social support and stress. However, there has been little attention paid to this variable with respect to ethnic minority populations. The available research tends to show conflicting results. For example, Hispanic workers who reported higher levels of social support had less job-related tension and fewer reported health problems (Gutierres, Saenz and Green 1994); ethnic minority workers with lower levels of emotional support were more likely to experience job burn-out, health symptoms, episodic job stress, chronic job stress and frustration; this relationship was strongest for women and for management as opposed to non-management personnel (Ford 1985). James (1994), however, did not find a significant relationship between social support and health outcomes in a sample of African-American workers.

Connell's ‘intermediate disturbance hypothesis’ was ..

In addition to the failure to address issues of ethnicity, by far the greater part of research does not examine class or gender differences, or class by race and gender interactions. Moreover, little is known about the cross-cultural utility of many of the assessment procedures. Documentation used in such procedures is not adequately translated nor is there demonstrated equivalency between the standardized English and other language versions. Even when the reliabilities appear to indicate equivalence across ethnic or cultural groups, there is uncertainty about which symptoms in the scale are elicited in a reliable fashion, that is, whether the phenomenology of a disorder is similar across groups (Roberts, Vernon and Rhoades 1989).

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