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Douglas Arnold, Public Affairs, Politics
2009 exposes the diverse and multifaceted factors behind the high and persistent inequality in Latin America through a close study of the relationships between inequality and educational mobility in Brazil, the effect of social services and community infrastructures on living standards in rural Peru, the macroeconomic and distributional effects of devaluation in Bolivia, and the impact of the conditional cash-transfer program (the Oportunidades program) on youth in rural Mexico.
This gets to my biggest problem with the whole inequality redistribution agenda. Ok, so the rich have stolen everything. Ok the poor aren't getting a fair shake. But what ought we to do about it? I pose this to someone in the comment section - if the answer is redistribution - where has this been effective?
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels
This paper investigates empirically the political determinants of stock market development. We argue that those determinants are grounded in distributional cleavages among voters and interest groups. Our argument reverses the sign of the prevailing explanation about the role of partisanship in the literature, where it is usually assumed that left governments frighten investors. To the extent that financial development is translated into higher levels of investment that increases labor demand, workers and the parties representing them will adopt policies and regulations that favor the capitalization of financial markets. We explore the empirical content of our hypothesis against several competing explanations: the legal origins school, which argues common law proxies stronger investor protections than civil law; the electoral law school, which argues proportional representation provides weaker protections than do majoritarian ones; the institutional economics view, which argues that checks on policymaking discretion such as veto gates protect the property rights of investors and encourage investment. We test the implications of the different arguments on the level of stock market capitalization in a panel of 85 countries over the period 1975-2004. We find preliminary evidence in favor of the partisanship hypothesis: left-leaning governments are more likely to be associated with higher stock market
Environmental Justice (EJ) is not universally defined. EJ has different meanings to various communities and institutions; therefore, the EJ definition is based in place, time, and perspective. It is often explained using examples of environmental injustices, focusing on the distribution of environmental risks.
29/11/2017 · Daniel W
EJ usually refers to the belief that all citizens, regardless of ethnicity or socioeconomic class, should equally share in the benefits of environmental amenities and the burdens of environmental health hazards. Most definitions have common “themes” of justice in distribution, procedures, and process (Pijawka et al. 1998 and Collins 1992).
This book explores the economic and environmental implications of environmental tax reform (ETR), also known as green fiscal reform, which entails a reduction in taxes on labour and profits, and a corresponding increase in taxes on pollution and the use of natural resources. The book investigates the hypothesis that such a tax shift can increase resource productivity and reduce pollution, and increase employment and innovation in environmental technologies, with potentially positive effects on output and human welfare. The detailed modelling and other analysis reported in the book suggest that ETR can indeed have these effects, although the GDP impacts are small and may be positive or negative, such that ETR emerges as an important cost-effective policy for environmental improvement. However, because countries' fiscal systems and taxation policies are politically very sensitive, the actual implementation of ETR is never likely to be simple, and consideration needs to be given to the political and cultural context of the country, and to the distributional impacts on both firms and households. Low-income households may require compensation if the tax shift is not to be regressive, while the impacts on the competitiveness of firms may be minimized, and the positive environmental impacts much magnified, if the ETR could be carried out at a global level.
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