Call us toll-free

Quick academic help

Don't let the stress of school get you down! Have your essay written by a professional writer before the deadline arrives.

Calculate the price


275 Words


Digital frequency modulation synthesis

The amplitude of each spectral component is determined by BOTH THE 'DEVIATION' (modulation amount) AND THE FREQUENCY OF MODULATION. To describe these amplitudes mathematically, it is useful to devine an INDEX OF MODULATION:

In audio and music, frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) ..

The amplitudes of the carrier and sideband components are determined by Bessel functions of the first kind and the nth order, Jn(), the argument to which is the MODULATION AMOUNT (I). The zeroth-order Bessel function and amount J0(I), yields a scaling coefficient for the first upper- and lower-side frequencies; the second-order J2(), for the second upper- and lower-side frequencies; and so forth. The higher the order of the side frequency the larger the modulation amount must be for that side frequency to have any significant amplitude. The total bandwidth is approximately equal to twice the sum of the FREQUENCY DEVIATION and the modulation frequency, or

• Subtractive synthesis • FM (Frequency Modulation) ..

Digital frequency modulation - Revolvy

If the original CARRIER contains additional partials (it is a more complex sound than just a simple waveform) then SIDEBANDS form in pairs around each partial. The intensity of the SIDEBAND frequencies is governed by the MODULATION INDEX which is in essence the depth or amount of the modulation. The actual MODULATION INDEX (I) is the ratio of the frequency of the modulating signal (mf) to the amplitude of the modulating signal (ma) -- as in ma/mf. The basic FM process may be described by the formula:

The FREQUENCY DEVIATION is equivalent to the AMPLITUDE of the modulating signal. Consequently, the stronger the AMPLITUDE of the modulating signal, the greater the BANDWIDTH (the greater number of sidebands) in the resulting SPECTRUM. [See Computer Music, 2nd ed, Charles Dodge, Schirmer Books, 1997, p. 116). "The distribution of power among the spectral components depends ... on the amount of frequency deviation ... produced by the modulating oscillator.... Increasing the deviation causes the sidebands to acquire more power at the expense of the power in the carrier frequency. The wider the deviation, the more widely distributed is the power among the sidebands and the greater the number of sidebands that have significant amplitudes. Thus the deviation can act as a control on the bandwidth of the spectrum of an FM signal.

Analog and digital modulation facilitate frequency division ..

FM Synthesis Frequency Modulation

With the expiration of the Stanford University FM patent in 1995, FM synthesis is now part of the synthesis repertoire of most modern synthesizers, usually in conjunction with , and sometimes techniques.

The harmonic distribution of a simple sine wave signal modulated by another sine wave signal can be represented with - this provides a basis for a simple mathematical understanding of FM synthesis.

Digital-Synthesis FM Stereo Generator - Model 708 Inovonics Broadcast, Inc.
Order now

    As soon as we have completed your work, it will be proofread and given a thorough scan for plagiarism.


    Our clients' personal information is kept confidential, so rest assured that no one will find out about our cooperation.


    We write everything from scratch. You'll be sure to receive a plagiarism-free paper every time you place an order.


    We will complete your paper on time, giving you total peace of mind with every assignment you entrust us with.


    Want something changed in your paper? Request as many revisions as you want until you're completely satisfied with the outcome.

  • 24/7 SUPPORT

    We're always here to help you solve any possible issue. Feel free to give us a call or write a message in chat.

Order now

Elements of Music Chapter 1 Flashcards | Quizlet

FM synthesis is a form of "distortion synthesis" or "nonlinear synthesis". It begins with an oscillator generating an audio-frequency "carrier" waveform with a frequency of Fc . An audio-frequency modulating waveform, with a frequency Fm, is then applied to change or "modulate" the frequency of the carrier oscillator.

Start studying Elements of Music Chapter 1

At the same time, the frequency of the modulating signal causes what are termed "sideband" frequencies to appear on either "side" of the carrier frequency. Therefore for each frequency component in the modulating signal, an "upper" sideband appears above Fc, and a "lower" sideband appears below Fc. Clearly a modulating waveform containing many frequencies (e.g. "partials") will create many FM sidebands.

Frequency modulation synthesis - Wikipedia

FM synthesis is very good at creating both harmonic and inharmonic ('clang', 'twang' or 'bong' noises) sounds. Complex (and proper) FM synthesis using analog is not generally feasible due to their inherent pitch instability, but FM synthesis (using the frequency stable phase modulation variant) is easy to implement digitally. As a result, FM synthesis was the basis of some of the early generations of from Yamaha, with Yamaha's flagship synthesizer being ubiquitous throughout the 1980s. Yamaha had patented its hardware implementation of FM, allowing it to nearly monopolize the market for that technology. developed a related form of synthesis called , used in its CZ series of synthesizers. It had a similar (but slightly differently derived) sound quality as the DX series.

Music Theory Flashcards | Quizlet

The amplitude (and position) of each sideband frequency depends on the index of modulation where the actual frequency of a particular sideband is symmetrically related to the carrier frequency. For example, if the carrier frequency is 440 and the modulation frequency is 100 then the sidebands will be symmetrically arranged both above and below the carrier frequency accordingly at both +100 and -100 increments: 440 +100; 440 - 100; 440 +200; 440 -200; 440 +300; 440 - 300, etc. The STRENGTH or amplitude of the individual sidebands will be dictated by the modulation index. So when the value of the modulation amount increases, it gives power (amplitude) to the sideband freuqencies by "stealing" power (amplitude) away from the carrier frequency. Consequently as the sideband frequencies increase in amplitude, the carrier frequency decreases in amplitude.

A simple example of Frequency Modulation synthesis ..

Modulation means using one signal to affect another signal. A simple example of Frequency Modulation synthesis (FM) consists of one oscillator (the MODULATOR), modulating the frequency of another oscillator (the CARRIER). This procedure produces additional frequencies called SIDEBANDS which form symmetrically around the original frequency of the CARRIER. For example, here is a simple FM patch:

Order now
  • You submit your order instructions

  • We assign an appropriate expert

  • The expert takes care of your task

  • We send it to you upon completion

Order now
  • 37 684

    Delivered orders

  • 763

    Professional writers

  • 311

    Writers online

  • 4.8/5

    Average quality score

Order now
  • Kim

    "I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."

  • Paul

    "Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."

  • Ellen

    "Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."

  • Joyce

    "Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."

  • Albert

    "Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."

  • Mary

    "Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."

Ready to tackle your homework?

Place an order