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Nitric Oxide and Cyclic GMP in Cell Signaling and Drug Development
Collectively, these weaknesses make it difficult to determine whether, or to what extent, this hypothesis truly reflects the intrinsic events of human tumor invasion or metastasis.
It may be possible that there are two types of metastasis-related niche. One is produced by exosomes produced by the primary tumour . The second is produced by exosomes from traveling cancer cells that have already invaded the target tissue. Thus this hypothesis may throw new light on the effect these exosomes have on the normal cells they invade. Previously the idea was that the only function of the epigenetic loads of the exosomes, emitted by cancer cells, was to prepare a suitable environment in the target cell for something else—i.e. another cancer cell—or possibly a fragment of double-stranded genomenal DNA with mutated bases in it—to develop and grow. Whereas, what really maybe happening might be that the epigenetic reprogramming of the target cell's biochemistry by exosomes from either of these two sources constitutes the metasasis.
GPCR-Mediated Signaling of Metabolites: Cell Metabolism
The concept of the altered morphogenetic/local field potential field of the cancer cell makes it easy to visualize how this complex co-ordinated mechanism could be modulated to change the patterns of epigenetic material packed into the developing exosome when the cell becomes malignant. These changes are very sensitive to changes in the local environment such as stress and anoxia (). Whereas it is seems somewhat difficult to see how the single (or small number) of scattered random mutations postulated by the SMT hypothesis could do this.
The SMT and TOFT hypotheses may be partly united by the following observation. In cases of human pancreatic cancer, Kahlert et al. () report that exosomes released from cancer cells contain >10-kb fragments of double-stranded genomic DNA. In these fragments they detected mutations in KRAS and p53. KRAS and p53 are the two most frequent mutated genes in pancreatic ductal cancer. The mutations found in this study in the exosomal DNA were a KRAS mutation on codon 12 (GGT—>TGT) and a second KRAs mutation on codon 22 (CAG—>CTG). A third p53 mutation was on codon 273 (CGT—>CAT). Thus exosomes from these cancer cells were carrying mutations identical to their parent cancer cells. In addition, using whole genome sequencing, they demonstrated that serum exosomes from these patients contained genomic DNA spanning all chromosomes. The authors then proceed to discuss the clinical applications of their findings as diagnostic tools. They do not discuss them in the context of relating to theories of the mechanism of cancer neogenesis. So what could be the functional effect in the target cell of the transport into it of the DNA cancer-related genetic mutations themselves?
Intelligent races who are not EARTH HUMANS
Hypothetic mechanism underlying theprotective effect of resveratrol via inhibiting the myd88-dependentTLR4 signaling pathway. Myd88, myeloid differentiation primaryresponse gene; TLR4, Toll-like receptor 4; COX-2, cyclooxygenase 2;IL, interleukin; NF-κB, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer ofactivated B cells; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; ALI, acute lunginjury.
The vertebrate body plan follows a stereotypical dorsal-ventral (D-V) tissue differentiation controlled by Bone Morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and secreted BMP antagonists such as Chordin. The three germ layers – ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm – are affected coordinately by the Chordin/BMP morphogen system. However, extracellular morphogen gradients of endogenous proteins have not been directly visualized in vertebrate embryos to date. In this study, we improved immunolocalization methods in Xenopus embryos and analyzed the distribution of endogenous Chordin using a specific antibody. Chordin protein secreted by the dorsal Spemann organizer was found to diffuse along a narrow region that separates the ectoderm from anterior endoderm and mesoderm. This Fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) is called Brachet’s cleft in the Xenopus gastrula and is present in all vertebrate embryos. Chordin protein formed a smooth gradient that encircled the embryo, reaching the ventral-most Brachet cleft. Depletion with morpholino oligos showed that this extracellular gradient was regulated by the Chordin protease Tolloid and its inhibitor Sizzled. The Chordin gradient, as well as the BMP signaling gradient, was self-regulating and, importantly, was able to rescale in dorsal half-embryos. Transplantation of Spemann organizer tissue showed that Chordin diffused over long distances along this signaling highway between ectoderm and mesoderm. Chordin protein must reach very high concentrations in this narrow region. We suggest that as ectoderm and mesoderm undergo morphogenetic movements during gastrulation, cells in both germ layers read their positional information coordinately from a single morphogen gradient located in Brachet’s cleft.
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