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Similarities between Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis
As with other early life processes, the first photosynthetic process was different from today’s, but the important result – capturing sunlight to power biological processes – was the same. The scientific consensus today is that a respiration cycle was modified, and a in a was used for capturing sunlight. Intermediate stages have been hypothesized, including the cytochrome using a pigment to create a shield to absorb ultraviolet light, or that the pigment was part of an infrared sensor (for locating volcanic vents). But whatever the case was, the conversion of a respiration system into a photosynthetic system is considered to have only happened , and all photosynthesizers descended from that original innovation.
About 1 bya, began to decline and microbial photosynthesizers , probably due to predation pressure from , which are eukaryotes. Eating stromatolites may reflect the of , although grazing is really just a form of predation. The difference between grazing and predation is the prey. If the prey is an (it fixes its own carbon, by using energy from either or ), it is called grazing, and if the prey got its carbon from eating autotrophs (such creatures are called ), then it is called . There are other categories of life-form consumption, such as and (eating dead organisms), and there are many instances of . For complex life, the symbiosis between the and its cellular host was the most important one ever.
Free similarities and difference between respiration …
For all of their seeming cunning and behaviors right out of , rhesus monkeys cannot pass the ; they attack their images, as they see themselves as just another rival monkey. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, pass the mirror test, and the threshold of sentience, whatever sentience really is, may not be far removed from the ability to pass the mirror test, or perhaps humanity has not yet achieved it. , considered the most intelligent New World monkeys, have socially based learning, in which the young watch and imitate their elders. Different capuchin societies have different cultures and different tool-using behaviors reflected in different solutions to similar foraging problems. Capuchins, isolated from African and Asian monkeys for about 30 million years, have striking similarities to their Old World counterparts, with female-centric societies and lethal hierarchical politics. As with chimpanzees and humans, ganging up on lone victims is the preferred method, which increases the chance of success and reduces the risk to the murderers. Unlike rhesus monkeys, for instance, capuchin males can help with infant rearing, but they will also kill infants that they did not father, as rhesus, also do (that behavior has been observed in 50 primate species). Those comparisons provide evidence that simian social organization results from the connection between simian biology and environment; their societies formed to solve the problems of feeding, safety, and reproduction.
Around when Harland first proposed a global ice age, a climate model developed by Russian climatologist concluded that if a Snowball Earth really happened, the runaway positive feedbacks would ensure that the planet would never thaw and become a permanent block of ice. For the next generation, that climate model made a Snowball Earth scenario seem impossible. In 1992, a professor, , that coined the term Snowball Earth. Kirschvink sketched a scenario in which the supercontinent near the equator reflected sunlight, as compared to tropical oceans that absorb it. Once the global temperature decline due to reflected sunlight began to grow polar ice, the ice would reflect even more sunlight and Earth’s surface would become even cooler. This could produce a runaway effect in which the ice sheets grew into the tropics and buried the supercontinent in ice. Kirschvink also proposed that the situation could become unstable. As the sea ice crept toward the equator, it would kill off all photosynthetic life and a buried supercontinent would no longer engage in . Those were two key ways that carbon was removed from the atmosphere in the day's , especially before the rise of land plants. Volcanism would have been the main way that carbon dioxide was introduced to the atmosphere (animal respiration also releases carbon dioxide, but this was before the eon of animals), and with two key dynamics for removing it suppressed by the ice, carbon dioxide would have increased in the atmosphere. The resultant greenhouse effect would have eventually melted the ice and runaway effects would have quickly turned Earth from an icehouse into a greenhouse. Kirschvink proposed the idea that Earth could vacillate between states.
List the similarities between cellular respiration and fermentation
The similarities and differences between these stories have been critically reviewed and will be discussed in the essay. The two stories are both centered on a particular person in the story....
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