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a condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis) ..

The most sensitive in vitro end-point was DNA synthesis in mitotic/meiotic germ cells; energy metabolism in germ cells was affected to a lesser extent, which was manifested in vivo as a decrease in early germ cell/Sertoli cell ratio prior to atrophy in the testes.


Four distinct types of damage can occur. When proteins are heated under relatively mild conditions, even storage at 37 °C, in the presence of reducing sugars or sucrose (which can hydrolyse to release reducing sugars) the epsilon-amino group of lysine reacts with the potential aldehyde group of the sugar to form early Maillard reaction products such as fructosyl-lysine. Fructosyl-lysine and formyl-lysine are absorbed but not metabolised. Reactive epsilon-amino groups can be conveniently measured with fluorodinitrobenzene (FDNB). Albumin heated under mild conditions with glucose had an ileal true N digestibility of 96 percent, but the FDNB-available lysine was reduced to 69 percent of the control and availability of lysine by growth bioassay with chicks, was also reduced to 69 percent of the control (Hurrell and Carpenter, 1978). Gossypol in cottonseed has a reactive aldehyde group which reacts similarly with lysine during processing to reduce the availability of lysine. It also contains about 10 percent of the non-reducing sugar raffinose but, as with sucrose, this must hydrolyse during heating to produce reducing sugars and results in loss of FDNB-available lysine (Martinez ., 1961). With more severe heat in the presence of reducing sugars advanced Maillard reactions lead to a further fall in FDNB-available lysine but an even greater fall in digestible lysine and a general reduction in the digestibility of all the other amino acids in the protein (Miller ., 1965).

of the condensation reaction for carbohydrates?

29/08/2010 · carbohydrates dehydration synthesis - Duration: ..

Also evaluated were effects of boric acid in Sertoli-germ cell co-cultures on Sertoli cell energy metabolism (lactate secreted by Sertoli cells is a preferred energy source for germ cells) and DNA/RNA synthesis (germ cells synthesize DNA/RNA, and boric acid impairs the synthesis of these nucleic acids in the liver).

The effect on DNA synthesis occurred at boron concentrations that were associated with atrophy in vivo and shows that boric acid interferes with the production and/or maturation of early germ cells; this offers an explanation for atrophy, but not for inhibited spermiation.

Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis Flashcards | Quizlet

Describe or draw the cyclical process of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.

Boron plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism, sugar translocation, pollen germination, hormone action, normal growth and functioning of the apical meristem, nucleic acid synthesis, and membrane structure and function (Lovatt & Dugger, 1984).

Concentrations above 50 mg boron/litre induce the formation of giant cells in Chlorella pyrenoidosa as a result of a stronger inhibition of the formation of daughter cells compared with the synthesis of biomass.

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Dehydration Synthesis VS Hydrolysis - Bio Molecules

The data suggest an effect of boric acid on the DNA synthesis activity of mitotic and meiotic germ cells and, to a lesser extent, on energy metabolism in Sertoli cells.

18/02/2008 · What is dehydration synthesis

Fundamentals of recombinant DNA technology, Cloning vectors, Genetic transformation of prokaryotes, PCR technologies, sequencing techniques; Prokaryotic gene expression systems, fusion proteins constructs, Fungus based expression systems, Insect cell expression systems, Mammalian cell expression systems; Directed mutagenesis and protein engineering; Synthesis of commercial products such as small biological molecules, antibiotics and biopolymers by recombinant microorganisms.

Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis concepts are easy to ..

Figure 5. The effect on protein synthesis, degradation and net retention in pigs when fed a basal diet supplemented with either fat or carbohydrate at a constant protein level, or with protein supplied at constant energy. Source: Reeds ., 1981

Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules | Boundless …

Protein synthesis in the body involves a considerable expenditure of energy to create the activated amino acids to be linked together. In addition, protein tissues are constantly being turned over. For every one unit of net accretion of protein about 5 units of protein are synthesised. Some tissues are turning over faster than others. Indeed some of the fastest tissue replacement, such as in the intestinal epithelium and liver, lead to little or no net accretion. The energy cost of protein synthesis in protein turnover, just to maintain the existing protein, has been estimated to account for 15 to 33 percent of energy needed for maintenance. When additional energy is provided, there is an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation and these two effects combine to enhance net protein retention. When additional protein is supplied at constant energy, there is an increase in both protein synthesis and in protein degradation, resulting in a smaller net increment in protein retention. This is illustrated in Figure 5, which gives the determined synthesis and degradation contributions to the net N retention. With increasing protein in the diet there are frequently small improvements in carcase quality, measured as increased protein and decreased fat content. These changes arise from the decreased net energy value of protein compared with carbohydrate and the increased energy required for increased protein turnover driven by higher dietary protein intake, resulting in reduced energy available for fat synthesis.

Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules

Dietary protein is not used efficiently as a source of energy. Although the gross energy of protein is greater than that of carbohydrate (23.6 kJ/g v 17.4 kJ/g for starch), when protein is used as an energy source the N has to be excreted as ammonia (fish), urea (mammals) or uric acid (birds). The ME value of protein at zero N retention takes into account the loss of energy in the excreta, such that the ME of protein and carbohydrate are approximately similar. The ME value for mammals and birds, however, does not take into account the energy costs of synthesising urea or uric acid and the cost of excretion in the kidney. Net energy (NE) of the diet represents the useful energy used to replace the losses of maintenance and the net deposition of energy as new tissue in growth or milk secretion during lactation, after subtracting the heat losses of metabolism.

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