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Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation
The amino acids are joined to form proteins by peptide bonds. The formation of peptide bonds requires a good amount of energy. Therefore, in the first phase of translation for protein synthesis, the amino acids are activated in the presence of ATP and linked to their cognate tRNA (transfer RNA). This process is called as charging of the tRNA or aminoacylation of tRNA. If two such charged tRNA are brought close enough, the formation of peptide bond between them is favored energetically. This function occurs inside the , as it contains two sites for subsequent amino acids to bind to and thus be close enough for bonding.
A polypeptide is formed by amino acids liking together through peptide bonds. There are 20 different amino acids so a wide range of polypeptides are possible. Genes store the information required for making polypeptides. The information is stored in a coded form by the use of triplets of bases which form codons. The sequence of bases in a gene codes for the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. The information in the genes is decoded during transcription and translation leading to protein synthesis.
What is protein synthesis? - InnovateUs
A triplet of bases (3 bases) forms a codon. Each codon codes for a particular amino acid. Amino acids in turn link to form proteins. Therefore DNA and RNA regulate protein synthesis. The genetic code is the codons within DNA and RNA, composed of triplets of bases which eventually lead to protein synthesis.
Replication occurs in the S-fase in preparation to cell division during which the genetic information for the synthesis of proteins is transfered from the mothercell to the daughtercell.
define protein synthesis? | Yahoo Answers
Assembly of the ribosomal subunits, mRNA, and initiator tRNA into a complex ready for protein synthesis requires several proteins called initiation factors. In prokary-otes, three initiation factors (IFs) transiently associate with the components of the translational machinery: IF1, IF2, and IF3. (In eukaryotes, more factors are required but the overall initiation process is similar with a few exceptions described below.) Table II summarizes the properties of E. coli initiation factors as well as protein factors involved in elongation and termination.
Protein Synthesis: Determining the Traits of a Mystery Organism Through Protein Synthesis. This fun activity teaches students how to read the code of messenger RNA codons and translate the code to determine the proteins that are made.
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08.12.2008 · Define protein synthesis
(Type I and type II synthetases, respectively.) Even if the amino acid is initially attached to the 2' OH, it is the 3' OH form that is used in protein synthesis.* This charged tRNA is now ready to take part in translation.
Before the synthesis of a protein begins, ..
You blinded me with science! Help students celebrate Valentine’s Day with this holiday inspired, protein synthesis activity (Biology + Valentine = Biotine)
recycling phases of eukaryotic protein synthesis
Many more protein factors are involved in eukaryotic initiation; some systems contain more than 10 initiation factors. Particular features of translation initiation are also different in the higher organisms. Most notably, prokary-otic ribosomes can initiate internally on an mRNA (even on circular RNAs), while in eukaryotes a "preinitiation" complex binds to the 5′-end of the mRNA and then progresses to an initiation complex. Eukaryotic mRNAs are capped at their 5′-end with a 7-methylguanosine triphosphate structure, and one of the eukaryotic initiation factors binds this capped end. The preinitiation complex then moves along the mRNA and initiates translation at the first AUG codon it comes to. Consistent with this scanning mechanism is the observation that eukaryotic mRNAs do not contain Shine-Dalgarno-like sequences.
Remember that protein synthesis is a separate ..
A combination of nucleotide signals identifies the beginning of an mRNA sequence to be translated into its protein product. The nucleotide triple AUG is the start codon that directs the ribosome to begin reading an mRNA and orients the message in the right frame (for example,… CUA GUG CAC C… rather than … C UAG UGC ACC…, which would be a different protein). However, AUG is also the codon for insertion of the amino acid methionine into the body of the polypeptide chain. What distinguishes the start AUG from other identical codons elsewhere in the message? A stretch of 3-10 nucleotides located about 10 nucleotides upstream (in the 5′-direction) from the start codon is called the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, after the researchers who identified it. This sequence is rich in A and G nucleotides, and is partially complementary to a short region of U and C nucleotides near the 3′-end of an RNA molecule embedded within the ribosomal small sub-unit. Such complementarity positions the incoming message properly on the ribosome, so that the start codon is in the ribosomal decoding site for initiation of protein synthesis. Once translation begins, the rest of the codons in the message need to be read, so the base-pairing interaction between mRNA and rRNA at the Shine-Dalgarno sequence must be transient.
Translation: Translation, the synthesis of protein from RNA
The resulting aminoacyl-tRNAs (AA-tRNAs) are transported by the elongation factor (EF-Tu in bacteria and EF1A in archaea and eukaryotes) to the ribosome as building blocks for protein synthesis [2,3].
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