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The model may be quantitative or qualitative.

A key issue that synthesis teams need to consider when framing the research question is how broadly or narrowly to frame questions. For example, an effectiveness review could focus upon a class of drugs for condition 'X' or a specific drug for condition 'X'. A review of the accuracy of routine coding after hospital discharge could look at studies across all conditions and procedures or only focus upon surgical procedures. Often reviews that address a broad question are called 'lumped' reviews, whereas reviews that address a narrow question are called 'split'.

vii. Preparing a structured report of the researchSee Reporting syntheses section below.

Incorporating quantitative methods of data collection and analysis intopreviously qualitative research areas is becoming important, both in theBank’s operational work and to increase the legitimacy of qualitative data.

A meta-synthesis of the qualitative evidence.

International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 4, 186-191.

Journal of Mixed Methods Research
Quantitative Issues
Qualitative Issues
For both methods it is important for the researcher to ensure they do not stereotype the participants and place equal importance on both data types.
Ethical Issues
• Creates a more holistic view of the research problem and question(s)

• Provides a very deep and rich understanding of the topic

• The researcher can develop instruments from preliminary qualitative research to use for quantitative research

• Provides both numbers and stories, so many different audiences can be engaged
Developing Mixed Methods Research with Dr.

For example, even when they themselves agree with the findings of the qualitativestudies, policy makers often want the qualitative findings to be presentedusing conventional statistical principles, in order to make these findingsmore acceptable to other agencies.

Meta-Synthesis - SAGE Research Methods

These stages highlight the scientific nature of syntheses and the need for rigorous methods to ensure the validity/trustworthiness of syntheses. In effect, syntheses are scientific studies that derive data from primary studies rather than cell lines, animal models or human subjects. This creates its own methodological challenges including optimal approaches to identify primary studies, methods to appraise individual studies, handling incomplete or missing data, methods to synthesize studies and methods to minimize bias within the synthesis process (e.g., identifying potential publication bias discussed below).

Assumption is that the data will provide different types of information

Campbell and Fiske (1959)

Possible Resources
Qualitative Data: can assume any form (interviews, observations, documents, records).

Quantitative Data: instrument data, observational checklists, or numeric records (such as census data).

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Qualitative Metasynthesis: Reflections on Methodological ..

There are a number of qualitative, participatory methods including: focus group discussions, open-ended stories, Venn diagrams, timelines, photovoice/digital stories, body mapping, census mapping, social mapping, problem and solution trees, community stakeholder mapping, role-plays, case studies, brainstorming sessions, ranking of priorities, force field analysis and so many more. Below are examples of some of these methodologies. Additional descriptions can be found in the resources section.

Meta-synthesis of qualitative ..

Pope, Mays and Popay(26) also highlight that while some synthesis approaches involve a relatively linear process through the stages, others involve a more iterative approach, such as refining the 'objectives of the research' throughout the synthesis process or using snowball approaches to study identification.

Qualitative: Quantitative: Definitions: ..


Seek to compare different perspectives drawn from quantitative and qualitative data

Seek to merge the two databases to show how the data converge or diverge

Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design
is recommended.

Notation Used in Mixed Methods Research
Side with one form of data or the other
Gather more data and make further comparisons
Reexamine each data base for rigor
Reevaluate whether parallel questions asked
State limitation
When Results Diverge,
Conflict, or are Inconsistent
Convergent Parallel Fundamentals
Both quantitative and qualitative data are collected and analyzed separately.

Results of both sets of data are compared to see if the findings confirm or deny each other.

Analysis - synthesis of all data; ..

There is increasing recognition of the importance of developing a detailed protocol prior to embarking on a synthesis. Syntheses are in effect retrospective observational studies and there is a danger of bias if researchers do not prospectively describe their scientific methods before looking at the available data. Protocols of relatively linear syntheses should be able to describe the purpose and methods of the synthesis in sufficient detail to allow a third party to replicate the review. Protocols of more iterative syntheses should be able to describe the purpose, methods, principles, and likely decision rules that will guide the conduct of the review. Ideally protocols should be available in the public domain to allow readers of syntheses to assess whether the synthesis teams have followed their research plan. However with the exception of reviews undertaken by The Cochrane Collaboration this is rarely the case, although there is no reason why researchers should not be able to post their synthesis protocols on their own websites. The development and publication of synthesis protocols enhances the transparency and accountability of the synthesis process. In the same spirit, reports of syntheses should be comprehensive and transparent to allow readers to appraise their likely validity/trustworthiness (see below). Opportunities to publish additional information on the web (either linked to the journal of publication or researchers' own websites) increasingly allow for full reporting of syntheses.

Qualitative Meta-Synthesis of User Experience of …

The demand for integrated research approaches comes from researcherswith a quantitative background (for example, economists working on povertyassessments) as well as from those who have traditionally used more qualitativefield studies (for example, work on resettlement and social assessment).

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