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Meteorite Impact Hypothesis Know what it is
Later, once the dust and aerosols have settled out, the enormous amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere by the impact generates a greenhouse effect that elevates temperatures on Earth for a thousand years or more.
My general claim is that the entire human genus is not of this Earth and had its origins in an arrival event on Earth shortly before a massive meteor impact/flood event 17000 yrs ago.
About 120 impact craters have been identified on the Earth, ..
Paleobiologists are fascinated with the history of life on Earth, and I share their sense of wonder. If I can impart the slightest sense of that to my readers, this essay's first half will be successful for that alone. However, just as a math curriculum builds on itself, as each class forms the foundation of the next one, this essay's first half is intended to help readers develop a foundational understanding. With that foundation built, the information in this essay's last half can make a profound impact and help readers achieve personal paradigm shifts. That is essentially this essay's purpose. Studying this essay's first half is far from a waste of time for those whom I seek, but is vitally important.
The Oligocene ended with a sudden global warming that continued into the (c. 23 to 5.3 mya). The Miocene was also the first epoch of the (c. 23 to 2.6 mya). Although the Miocene was , England had palm trees again, Antarctic ice sheets melted, and oceans rose. The Miocene is also called the Golden Age of Mammals. Scientists still wrestle with why Earth’s temperature increased in the late Oligocene, but there is no doubt that it did. As the has demonstrated, many dynamics impact Earth’s climate, and positive and negative feedbacks can produce dramatic changes. For the several million year warm period, carbon dioxide levels do not appear to have been elevated. That data has been seized on by as evidence that carbon dioxide levels have nothing to do with Earth’s temperature, but climate scientists not rarely think that way. Carbon dioxide is only one greenhouse gas, and . But as clouds demonstrate, water is notoriously ephemeral, constantly evaporating and precipitating, and some land can get a lot (rainforests), and some can get very little (deserts). Icehouse Earth temperatures are more variable than Greenhouse Earth temperatures, particularly during the transitions between states, and an Icehouse Earth atmosphere contains less water vapor than a Greenhouse Earth atmosphere.
The Scientific Method: Hypothesis to Theory
Other than humans, rhesus macaques are Earth’s most widespread primates, and both species are generalists whose ability to adapt has been responsible for their success. Rhesus macaques are , about twice that of dogs and cats, and nearly as much as chimpanzees. Rhesus macaques have what is called Machiavellian social organization, in which everybody is continually vying for rank and power is everything. Those with rhesus power get the most and best food, the best and safest sleeping places, mating privileges, the nicest environments to live in, and endless grooming by subordinates, whom the dominants can beat and harass whenever they want, while those low in the hierarchies get the scraps and are usually the first to succumb to the vagaries of rhesus life, including predation. It is the . But even the lowliest macaque will become patriotic cannon fodder if his society faces an external threat, as even a macaque knows that a miserable life is better than no life at all. The violence inflicted seems economically optimized; within a society the violence is mostly harassment, but when rival societies first come in contact, the violence is often lethal, as the initially established dominance can last for lifetimes. Within a society, killing a subordinate does not make economic sense, as that subordinate supports the hierarchy. Potentates rely on slaves. The human smile evolved from the teeth-baring display of monkeys that connotes fear or submission.
Those oceanic changes profoundly impacted Earth’s ecosystems. Not only did most warm-climate species go extinct, at least locally, but new species appeared that were adapted to the new environment. about 35 mya and were replaced by whales adapted to the new oceanic ecosystems that are still with us today: , which include dolphins, orcas, and porpoises; and , which adapted to the rich plankton blooms caused by of the new circulation, particularly in the . Sharks adapted to the new whales, which culminated with in the Oligocene. With the land bridges and small seas between the northern continents unavailable in colder times, the easy travel between those continents that characterized the Eocene’s warm times ended and the continents began developing endemic ecosystems. Europe became isolated from all other continents by the mid-Eocene and developed its own peculiar fauna. At the Oligocene’s beginning, the was no longer a barrier between Europe and Asia. More , although from competition, an extinction event, or other causes is still debated, and competition is favored. About half of European mammalian genera went extinct, replaced by immigrants from Asia, and some from North America via Asia.
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Earth Science THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
When sea levels rise as dramatically as they did in the Cretaceous, coral reefs will be buried under rising waters and the ideal position, for both photosynthesis and oxygenation, is lost, and reefs can die, like burying a tree’s roots. About 125 mya, reefs made by , which thrived on , began to displace reefs made by stony corals. They may have prevailed because they could tolerate hot and saline waters better than stony corals could. About 116 mya, an , probably caused by volcanism, which temporarily halted rudist domination. But rudists flourished until the late Cretaceous, when they went extinct, perhaps due to changing climate, although there is also evidence that the rudists . Carbon dioxide levels steadily fell from the early Cretaceous until today, temperatures fell during the Cretaceous, and hot-climate organisms gradually became extinct during the Cretaceous. Around 93 mya, , perhaps caused by underwater volcanism, which again seems to have largely been confined to marine biomes. It was much more devastating than the previous one, and rudists were hit hard, although it was a more regional event. That event seems to have , and a family of . On land, , some of which seem to have , also went extinct. There had been a decline in sauropod and ornithischian diversity before that 93 mya extinction, but it subsequently rebounded. In the oceans, biomes beyond 60 degrees latitude were barely impacted, while those closer to the equator were devastated, which suggests that oceanic cooling was related. shows rising oxygen and declining carbon dioxide in the late Cretaceous, which reflected a general cooling trend that began in the mid-Cretaceous. Among the numerous hypotheses posited, late Cretaceous climate changes have been invoked for slowly driving dinosaurs to extinction, in the “they went out with a whimper, not a bang” scenario. However, it seems that dinosaurs did go out with a bang. A big one. Ammonoids seem to have been brought to the brink with nearly marine mass extinctions during their tenure on Earth, and it was no different with that late-Cretaceous extinction. Ammonoids recovered once again, and their lived in the late Cretaceous, but the end-Cretaceous extinction marked their final appearance as they went the way of and other iconic animals.
The RNA World and other origin-of-life theories. by Brig Klyce
The Cenozoic equivalent of a bolide impact was the arrival of humans, as glyptodonts shortly after human arrival. The largest endemic South American animals to survive the of three mya, when North American placentals prevailed over South American marsupials, and the arrival of humans to the Western Hemisphere beginning less than 15 kya, are the and , which are tiny compared to their ancient South American brethren. The giant anteater is classified as a sloth, and sloths were a particularly South American animal. The were bigger than , which are Earth’s largest land animals today. After car-sized glyptodonts went extinct, dog-sized became the line’s largest remaining representative.
Today, research in the RNA world is a medium-sized industry
appeared in the Mesozoic and required oxygen to form calcium carbonate. They became so abundant in the high oxygen of the late Cretaceous that the rain of their bodies on ocean floors gave the its name: chalk (the Latin name). Calcium carbonate, the primary constituent of limestone, comes in two forms: and . The magnesium content in the oceans, as well as the ocean temperature, determines which form of calcium carbonate will dominate. The also marked the end of a 100-million-year ice age and gave way to about 200 million years of hot times. During , Earth has . That pattern also seems . Hot seas are generally and cold seas are usually . Calcite seas create , which influence the biome that forms. The and periods had vast carbonate hardgrounds, which disappeared during the and returned in the Greenhouse Earth age of dinosaurs, becoming common in the Jurassic. Today’s Icehouse Earth has aragonite seas, so organisms that form calcium carbonate shells use aragonite, which is less stable than calcite and its formation is sensitive to temperature and acidity. Coral reefs, key phytoplankton (which help produce Earth’s oxygen), and shellfish use aragonite today to form their shells. There is already that acidification of the oceans due to humanity’s burning of fossil hydrocarbon deposits to power the industrial age is interfering with the ability of coral, carbonate-forming phytoplankton, and shellfish to form their shells. That is only one of the industrial age’s many deleterious ecosystem impacts. The current aragonite-formation situation is not a theoretical construct of fearful environmentalists, but is a .
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