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Scientists sometimes broadly define lipids as hydrophobic or ..


A new unsaturated methyl-branched fatty acid, 9-methyl-16:1(n-6) and theuncommon 11-methyl- 18:1(n-6) were found in the lipid extract of a new strain ofbacterium associated with the alga ). Anothernovel methyl-branched fatty acid, 10-methyl-18:1(n-9), was found in the lipidextract of the marine fungus

It contains a lot of information about fatty acids and other lipid compounds.

todescribe phospholipids carrying a covalent bond (C-P) between posphorus and the carbonof the nitrogenous base ().

First description of a glycosphingolipid containing a large quantity of fucose(1 out of 4 carbohydrate residues) ("fucolipid") in adenocarcinoma cellsfrom human stomach ().

Mattson FH determined that in intestine, triglycerides are preferentiallyhydrolyzed at position -1 and -3.

Biosynthesis of Lipids and Hydrocarbons in Algae | …

introduced acetone in the preparation of phospholipids (separation from fats and cholesterol).

purified a phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine) from egg yolk onan alumina column ().

Baer E described the synthesis of phosphatidic acid by treatment ofdiacylglycerol with diphenylchlorophosphate and removal of the phenyl group bycatalytic reduction ().

Hofman K et al.

described a type of membrane lipoproteins, proteolipids, whichare soluble in a mixture of chloroform and methanol ().

First description of the countercurrent separation of "the higher normalfatty acids" (C5-C18) ().

Galactosamine was identified in brain gangliosides ().

First description of the cholesterol lowering effect of a plant sterol (beta-sitosterol)in cholesterol-fed chickens(

Although there is quite few information on lipid biosynthesis and ..

showed that certainlipids ("lipins") must be present in the diet during the growth of rat().

Lipids are a structurally heterogeneous collection of molecules made largely of carbon and hydrogen with a little oxygen, although nitrogen and phosphorus are often thrown in as well. The feature these disparate molecules have in common is that they are hydrophobic.

Glycerophospholipids are major constituents of membranes and are responsible for the membrane being a bilayer.

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Biosynthesis and Function of Chloroplast Lipids | …

Chloroplast membranes are composed of four unique lipids, including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) and phosphatidyl-glycerol (PG). These lipids are crucial for maintaining the function of chloroplasts not simply because they account for a large fraction of the photosynthetic membranes, but because they are assembled into the photosynthetic machinery and are, therefore, directly involved in photosynthetic processes. Indeed, Ara-bidopsis mutants of these lipids possess some photosynthetic defects. Diacylglycerol (DAG), a common precursor of the glycolipids, is produced by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways but the detailed mechanism of DAG supply to chloroplasts remains ambiguous. Because most of the genes encoding the lipid-synthesizing enzymes have been identified in this decade, significant progress delineating the physiological functions and regulatory mechanisms of lipid biosynthesis in chloroplasts has been achieved. In Arabidopsis, two types of MGDG synthases, Type A (AtMGD1) and Type B (AtMGD2, AtMGD3), were identified and their distinct functions in chloroplasts have been unveiled. Type A MGDG synthase is involved in the bulk of MGDG synthesis whereas Type B MGDG synthase is induced under phosphate (Pi)-limited conditions. Two genes, DGD1 and DGD2, for DGDG synthases, which are involved in DGDG synthesis, were identified. DGD1 is the predominant DGDG synthase whereas DGD2 is induced under Pi-limited growth conditions. SQDG synthesis is mediated by two enzymes, SQD1 and SQD2. The key enzyme for PG synthesis is PG phosphate synthase, which is encoded by two genes, PGP1 and PGP2. Plants have homeostatic mechanisms to balance the amount of these lipids by regulating their biosyntheses under various environmental conditions, such as limiting Pi, which stimulates replacement of phospholipids with glycolipids through regulation of enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis.

and regulatory mechanisms of lipid biosynthesis in ..

These are somewhat more complex lipids with a superficial resemblance to glycerophospholipids. All of them contain, instead of glycerol, the fatty acid derivative sphingosine.

Lipid Metabolism - The University of Texas Health …

Sphingolipids have a fatty acid (sometimes a very long one) attached to the amino group of sphingosine and a compound X attached to the terminal hydroxyl group of sphingosine. Here are some examples:

the lipid biosynthesis pathway ..

Sphingolipids play important roles in certain membranes. They are often involved in signaling. Just like any other biochemical compound, they have to be broken down eventually. Lesions in the degradation pathway of certain sphingolipids can cause very serious diseases such as Tay-Sachs.

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