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Genetic testing of language replacement hypothesis in Anatolia, ..
Another major advance happened in the late 20th century: the ability to analyze DNA. was discovered in 1953. In 1973, . In 2003, . was accomplished in 2005, for orangutans in 2011, and for in 2012. The comparisons of human and great ape DNA have yielded many insights, but the science of DNA analysis is still young. What has yielded far more immediately relevant information has been studying human DNA. The have been identified. Hundreds of falsely convicted Americans have been released from prison, and nearly 20 from , due to Human DNA testing has provided startling insights into humanity's past. For instance, in Europe it appears that after the ice sheets receded 16,000 to 13,000 years ago, , and for all the bloody history of Europe over the millennia since then, there have not really been mass population replacements in Europe by invasion, migration, genocide, and the like. Europeans just endlessly fought each other and honed the talents that helped them conquer humanity. There were , but other than hunter-gatherers being displaced or absorbed by the more numerous agriculturalists, there do not appear to be many population replacements. In 2010, suggested that male farmers from the Fertile Crescent founded the paternal line for most European men as they mated with the local women. DNA testing has demonstrated that all of today’s humans are , of whom a few hundred and conquered Earth. The , as well as genomes of other extinct species, and for a brief, exuberant moment, some scientists thought that , -style. Although dinosaur DNA is unrecoverable, organic dinosaur remains been recovered, and even some proteins have been sequenced, which probably no scientist believed possible in the 1980s.
The aging of the population is also likely to become a major issue. As people live longer there will be a greater need for home care and for long-term care. Assisting Canadians to save more for their own retirement is another growing need. While the Old Age Security and the Guaranteed Income Supplement have helped to keep many from poverty, there is a need to expand the Canada/Québec Pension Plan to provide greater replacement income in the future. Tax credits and deferred savings plans like the Registered Retirement Savings Plan have provided considerable benefit largely to higher-income households but such individual savings programs have not assisted the bulk of the population.
Recent African origin of modern humans - Wikipedia
The debate over modern human origins continues a long-standing dispute among palaeoanthropologists about the relative contribution of archaic hominid diversity to the morphological diversity in present populations, about the relative antiquity and significance of human races, and about the differences between Homo sapiens and other types of hominid. The current phrase of the debate took shape from Wolpoff and co-workers' establishment of the multi-regional hypothesis as the most explicit formulation of a long-term anagentic model, involving prolonged regional stability, gradual change and persistent gene flow, and from morphological data and genetic proposals for a recent and African origin for modern humans, involving human dispersal and replacement of archaic populations.
Although the MM is a remarkably flexible model and can incorporate virtually all possibilities and still survive, the overwhelming trend in recent work has been to increase the empirical evidence in favour of a SOM, to undercut the theorectical and empirical basis for the MM, and to show that modern humans are derived from a relatively recent African source population. This is not to say that there are no issues unresolved or no development in the SOM. The extended chronology, the high levels of subsequent gene flow, the evidence for multiple dispersals, the changes in hominid populations in the later Pleistocene, all argue against a single revolutionary origin-disperal-replacement event. Nonetheless, a recent African origin of modenr humans is the best basis for examining later Pleistocene hominid prehistory.
The recent African origin of modern humans, ..
An alternative explanation is that the changes observed in the Chatelperronian, Szeletian and Uluzzian were the result of acculturation of the indigenous Neanderthals under the influence of the incoming modem humans who were associated with the first Upper Palaeolithic tradition, the Aurignacian (Mellars 1992; 1993). This may have occurred with (Brauer 1992; Smith 1992) or without (Mellars 1992; 1993) interbreeding, and it may have been stimulated either by direct interaction and observation, or more indirectly as the Neanderthals adapted to the new elements in their environment. Such an interpretation is consistent with the basic structure of the SOM, and could involve admixture (Brauer 1992; Smith 1992) or replacement (Harrold 1989; Hublin & Tillier 1992; Klein 1992; Mellars 1989; 1992; Stringer et al. 1984) between Neanderthals and moderns. In Europe, especially western Europe, the absence of evidence for transitional morphologies, the apparently prolonged period of overlap between 10 and 15 Kyr); and the technological changes associated with the terminal Neanderthals, all indicate a complex process of cornpetitive displacement, not a drastic and instantaneous replacement event. The European case shows no simple correlation between biology and technology, but there is nonetheless an evolutionary meaningful pattern.
III. Human Population
A. Define demography and demographic factors including crude birth rate, crude death rate, doubling time, natural rate of increase/decrease, total fertility rate, replacement fertility rate, population profiles, marriage age, infant mortality rate, literacy, population density and
B. Given the crude birth and death rates of a country, calculate the natural rate of increase/decrease as a percent and the doubling time in years.
C. List demographic factors which are used to judge quality of life in different countries.
D. Describe what the different demographic factors tell about a population.
E. Compare and contrast demographic factors between less developed countries and more developed countries.
F. Describe the historical growth of the world’s human population.
G. Contrast historical and future human population growth between more developed countries and less developed countries.
H. List arguments in favor of and against controlling human population growth.
I. Describe the four stages of a demographic transition.
J. Describe the influence of the availability of family planning on human population growth.
K. Describe factors which are effective in reducing fertility.
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Multiregional origin of modern humans - Wikipedia
Brachial and crural indices of European late Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic humans by TW Holliday Department of Anthropology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, USA. QUOTE: "The somewhat paradoxical retention of "tropical" indices in the context of more "cold-adapted" limb length is best explained as evidence for Replacement in the European Late Pleistocene, followed by gradual cold adaptation in glacial Europe.
Multiregional origin of modern humans A graph detailing the ..
The process of transforming requires millions of years. When organic sediments are buried, most of the oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur of dead organisms is released, leaving behind carbon and some hydrogen in a substance called , in a process that is . Plate tectonics can subduct sediments, particularly where oceanic plates meet continental plates. There is an “oil window” roughly between 2,000 and 5,000 meters deep; if kerogen-rich sediments are buried at those depths for long enough (millions of years), (which produce high temperature and pressure) break down complex organic molecules and the result is the hydrocarbons that comprise petroleum. If organic sediments never get that deep, they remain kerogen. If they are subducted deeper than that for long enough, bonds are broken and the result is , which is also called . Today, the geological processes that make oil can be reproduced in industrial settings that can in a matter of hours. Many hydrocarbon sources touted today as replacements for conventional oil were never in the oil window, so were not “refined” into oil and remain kerogen. The so-called and are made of kerogen ( is soluble kerogen). It takes a great deal of energy to refine kerogen into oil, which is why kerogen is an inferior energy resource. Nearly a century ago in it took less than one barrel of oil energy to produce one hundred barrels, for an energy return on investment ("EROI" or "") of more than 100, in the Golden Age of Oil. Global EROI is declining fast and will fall to about 10 by 2020. The EROIs of those oil shales and oil sands are less than five and as low as two.
Out of Africa Hypothesis - Did All Humans Evolve in …
Second is the question of interbreeding and replacements. The genetic evidence has been used to determine over what areas and times gene flow occured and had a significant effect on human evolution. This is extremely difficult to integrate with either archaeological or fossil data, which seldom provide unambiguous evidenc. If both the modem human and Neanderthal lineages derive from a common Mode 3 population around 250 Kyr, it may mean that their last common ancestor was sufficiently recent in time for Neanderthal genetic variation to be within that of modem humans. However, the fossil and archaeological evidence in Europe, perhaps more so than anywhere else, do seem to indicate a discontinuous pattern of change in the late Pleistocene.
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