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References for The Gaia Hypothesis & Daisyworld:

At the conference criticised the Gaia hypothesis for its imprecision. He claimed that Lovelock and Margulis had not presented one Gaia hypothesis, but four -

Gaia hypothesis for Kids - Kiddle

His initial hypothesis was that the modifies the conditions on the planet to make conditions on the planet more hospitable – the Gaia Hypothesis properly defined this "hospitality" as a full . Lovelock's initial hypothesis, accused of being by his critics, was that the is kept in by and for the .

of the Gaia hypothesis is the development of the “Daisyworld ..

Daisyworld: Stella Mac or PC - … proposed by James Lovelock as a plausible example of his Gaia hypothesis

In 1997, Tyler Volk argued that a Gaian system is almost inevitably produced as a result of an evolution towards far-from-equilibrium homeostatic states that maximise production, and Kleidon (2004) agreed stating: "...homeostatic behavior can emerge from a state of MEP associated with the planetary albedo"; "...the resulting behavior of a biotic Earth at a state of MEP may well lead to near-homeostatic behavior of the Earth system on long time scales, as stated by the Gaia hypothesis." Staley (2002) has similarly proposed " alternative form of Gaia theory based on more traditional Darwinian principles... In [this] new approach, environmental regulation is a consequence of population dynamics, not Darwinian selection. The role of selection is to favor organisms that are best adapted to prevailing environmental conditions. However, the environment is not a static backdrop for evolution, but is heavily influenced by the presence of living organisms. The resulting co-evolving dynamical process eventually leads to the convergence of equilibrium and optimal conditions."

There are speculative versions of the Gaia hypothesis, including versions in which it is held that the Earth is conscious or part of some universe-wide evolution such as expressed in the strain of a larger speculative . These extreme forms of the Gaia hypothesis, that the entire Earth is a single unified organism that is consciously manipulating the climate in order to make conditions more conducive to life, are or views for which no evidence exists, and which cannot be tested scientifically. The political branch of Gaia theory is the , a collection of different organisations operating in different countries, but all sharing a concern for how humans might live more sustainably within the "living system".

James LOVELOCK's web site - the international homepage

A model that is often used to illustrate the original Gaia Hypothesis is the so-called Daisyworld ..

The rest of this post will be an exploration of what Grinspoon’s formulation of the Gaia Hypothesis might mean in more concrete terms. We will contemplate our planet from several perspectives, so our exploration will be longer than usual.

The Gaia hypothesis is an proposing that the and the physical components of the (, , and ) are closely integrated to form a that maintains the and conditions on Earth in a preferred . Originally proposed by as the earth feedback hypothesis, it was named the Gaia Hypothesis after the of the Earth, at the suggestion of William Golding, Nobel prizewinner in literature and friend and neighbour of Lovelock. The hypothesis is frequently described as viewing the Earth as a single organism. Lovelock and other supporters of the idea now call it Gaia theory, regarding it as a scientific theory and not mere hypothesis, since they believe it has passed predictive tests.

Mathematical model to sustain the Gaia hypothesis
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The Daisyworld control system - ePrints Soton

The Gaia Hypothesis and Daisyworld program lets you use the "Daisyworld"model, which illustrates the Gaia hypothesis that life on Earth affectsEarth's global environment.

The Gaia hypothesis, also known as Gaia theory or Gaia principle, ..

The program includes an introduction; detailedinformation about the Gaia hypothesis, the model, and criticisms of themodel; a simple animated version of the model; and a more detailed versionof the model.

Plots from a standard black & white Daisyworld simulation.

The Gaia Hypothesis and Daisyworld program lets you use the "Daisyworld"model, which illustrates the Gaia hypothesis that life on Earth affectsEarth's global environment.

Daisyworld Coursework Example | Topics and Well …

Today’s science generally regards all celestial objects, including the Earth, as non-living. There is, however, a perspective developing among some scientists that raises the question of whether a planet like the Earth, on which life abounds, might appropriately be considered as living. One of the earliest formulations of this perspective is known as the Gaia Hypothesis, after the Greek goddess of the Earth, Gaia. It was developed by the British chemist James Lovelock and the American biologist Lynn Margulis. Lovelock and Margulis wrote frequently about their idea (see, for example, James Lovelock, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth), but the most compelling formulation I have found comes from the pen of David Grinspoon, a planetary scientist deeply interested in the possibility of life on other planets. Here is one way he raises the concept of a living planet, taken from his book Earth in Human Hands.

Daisyworld - Coursework Example

The Gaia hypothesis was first scientifically formulated in the 1960s by the independent research scientist James Lovelock, as a consequence of his work for on methods of detecting life on Mars. He initially published the Gaia Hypothesis in journal articles in the early 1970s followed by a popularizing 1979 book Gaia: A new look at life on Earth.

His life’s work on the Gaia hypothesis stems from this time

Lovelock was interested in exploring how interactive systems could work in ways that would lead to the generation of environmental conditions that are both supportive of life and stable over time. To do this, he developed a computer model that allowed the analysis of one important aspect of the whole Earth’s physical state, the temperature. In particular, Lovelock’s model showed how temperature could be maintained stable over billions of years even though Earth has been drawing slightly closer to the Sun and therefore should have been getting substantially hotter. He called his model , and white daisies came to be emblematic of the Gaia Hypothesis. Here is the core idea.

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